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The process of re-feudalization and counter-reformation experienced by Italy in the second to fourth quarter of the 16th century dramatically changed the character of its architectural development. At the end of 16-18 centuries. the main customers of architecture are the church and the nobility, who demanded a brightly emotional frame for magnificent, theatrical ceremonies - religious and secular. The logical compositions of Renaissance architecture, their inherent completeness of parts are replaced by the complex systems of merging spaces characteristic of Baroque architecture, the developed plasticity of volumes, the abundant use of decorative sculpture and the illusionistic effects of painting, visually destroying the materiality of walls and ceilings. In baroque architecture, the building is closely interconnected with the surrounding space (the cathedral and the colonnaded St. Peter's Square in Rome). Along with Italy (the work of L. Bernini, F. Borromini, G. Guarini), Baroque architecture was widely spread in Germany, Austria, and Czechoslovakia. The influence of the baroque of Spain and Portugal, combined with the traditions of the pre-colonial period, gave rise to the baroque architecture of Latin America, marked by extreme decorative richness.


France in the 17th century the triumph of absolutism, the development of industry and trade, the growth of cities created the prerequisites for the emergence of classicism architecture. The rationalistic worldview underlying it was expressed in the severity of geometric compositions; the system of architectural orders was widely used as a decorative motif. The principle of composition regularity extended to the organization of gardens, parks and city squares (creativity of L. Levo, J. Hardouin-Mansart, A. Le Nôtre). End-to-end perspectives permeated suites of premises, urban areas, parks of country residences (Vole-Vicomte, Versailles, etc. - in France). The development of classicist architecture continued in France (architects J. A. Gabriel, C. N. Ledoux) and other European countries in the second half of the 18th and early 19th centuries. after a brief flash of decorative and ornate rococo style. Classicism was supported by the growing bourgeoisie. During the period of the Napoleonic Empire, classicism came to the cold splendor of the Empire style. In England, the picturesque environment of parks that imitated natural nature was created in contrast to the classicist architecture of buildings.

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