вторник, 8 марта 2022 г.

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In the 19th century very few remains of the skeletons of the most ancient people were known. Many have now been discovered. The oldest ones were found in Africa, therefore it is believed that it was on this continent that the evolution of great apes, which lasted many millions of years, led to the appearance of man. 3.5-1.8 million years ago, the steppes of Africa were already roaming creatures that were called Australopithecus - southern monkeys. They had a small brain and massive jaws, but they could already move in an upright position and hold a stick or stone in their hands.

Scientists believe that the first stone tools appeared about 2.5 million years ago. These were stones with sharp edges and flakes from them. Such tools could cut a branch, skin a dead animal, split a bone, or dig a root out of the ground. The one who made them received the name ^handy man* (homo habilis). Now he is considered the first representative of the human race.
A skilled man "moved on his feet, and his hands were adapted not only to hold a stick or stone, but also to make tools. These ancient people did not yet know how to speak; like monkeys, they gave each other signals with cries, gestures, grimaces. In addition to plant foods, they ate the meat of animals that they probably hunted. Their groups were small and consisted of several males, females with cubs and adolescents.

About 1 million years ago, a new species appeared - “straightened man” (homo erectus), Pithecanthropus, i.e. ape-man. This creature still resembled its animal ancestors. It was covered with hair, had a low forehead and brow ridges that protruded strongly forward. But the size of his brain was already quite large, approaching the size of a modern human brain. The "straightened man" learned to make various tools from stone - large axes of the correct form, scrapers, cutters. With such tools it was possible to chop, cut, plan, dig, kill animals, remove skins from them, butcher carcasses.

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