San Juan De Los Terreros and its beaches
Roquetas de Mar and its beaches
Níjar – one of the largest municipalities of Spain
Lucainena de las Torres and its attractions
Tabernas castle dates back to the 11th century
Gérgal Castle has been listed as a Site of Cultural Interest since 1985
Oasys Mini Hollywood – Spanish Western-styled theme park
Unfortunately, Darius' successors on the Iranian throne did not realize how fragile the balance Darius had created was. They began to allow the union of bureaucratic and military positions in one hand, to give the collection of taxes at the mercy of the trading houses of Babylon, it is senseless to accumulate treasures in their storerooms, depriving the markets of specie. Their main mistake was a century and a half conflict with the Greek city-states. Clashes with the Greeks, in fact, began under Darius, but they became more frequent under his son Xerxes. The political system created by Darius was not designed for waging burdensome long wars. Her death was a foregone conclusion long before, in 334 BC. Alexander the Great went on a campaign against Iran (see article "Philip II and Alexander the Great").
The Greeks did their best to present the Iranians to future generations as a “people of slaves”, and their kings as “despots”. It is hardly worth fully trusting the point of view of the winners ...
Darius I had something to tell the gods in the inscription on the Behistun rock. Not yet knowing the word "history", Darius already felt like its creator.
La Línea de la Concepción – a westernmost resort of the Costa del Sol
Algeciras ranked as the 16th busiest port in the world
San Roque was the first enclave of Campo de Gibraltar to be declared a historical-artistic complex
Sanlúcar de Barrameda is internationally renowned for beach horse racing
Chipiona and its tallest lighthouse in Spain
El Puerto de Santa María – the City of a Hundred Palaces
Jerez de la Frontera – the world capital of sherry wine
Cádiz and its Victoria Beach – best urban beach in Europe
Tarifa – where the Mediterranean Sea meets the Atlantic Ocean
Vejer de la Frontera and its historic center
Conil de la Frontera and its beaches
Chiclana de la Frontera has the largest number of hotel beds in the Costa de la Luz
Cordoba has more World Heritage Sites than anywhere in the world
The Iznájar reservoir is the largest in Andalusia
The most extensive was the kingdom of the Seleucids. Its capital was first Babylon, then Seleucia on the Tigris, and finally Antioch on the Orontes. While the Seleucids settled in their new palaces, decorated the capitals and strengthened themselves in the western borders of their state, their affairs in the east went from bad to worse. The satrap of Bactria and Sogdiana did not want to submit to the central government, and his son proclaimed himself an independent ruler under the name of Diodotus II, dreaming of creating a kingdom similar to Pergamon, which fell away from the Seleucids and fought hard for its independence.
Motril is synonymous with sugar cane
Pampaneira and its attractions
Capileira and its parish church
Lanjarón and its mineral waters
Granada – noble, loyal, named great, famous and heroic city
The castle of Moclín named ‘Hins Al-Muqlin’ during the Nasrid kingdom
The Abbey of Sacromonte and its museum
Ayamonte and Isla Canela beach – the westernmost resort on Costa de la Luz
Alcalá la Real and its fortress of La Mota
Jaén – world capital of olive oil
Baños de la Encina and its castle
Úbeda – a World Heritage Site by UNESCO
Baeza – a World Heritage Site by UNESCO
Segura de la Sierra and its castle
The Alcaudete castle was declared a Bien de Interés Cultural monument in 1949
Saint Catherine’s Castle – former Moorish fortress
The worried Seleucids repeatedly tried to destroy the emerging kingdom, but could not cope with the Parthian army. It consisted of light cavalry armed with small double-curved bows and short arrows, with which the riders showered the enemy, dragging him towards their heavily armed cavalry. Riders and horses of the heavy cavalry were protected by scaly or plate shells made of "Margian iron" (see the article "Military Affairs of the Ancient East"). Over the armor, the warriors threw on cloaks of red or purple purple.
Nerja – the easternmost resort of Costa del Sol
Frigiliana and its white colors
La Cala de Mijas and its towers
Fuengirola and its attractions
Benalmádena is one of the municipalities with the largest hotel offer on the Costa del Sol
Torremolinos – one of the main spots of musical and nightlife in Spain
The Parthian warriors cherished their war horses more than their lives. Golden or rare white suit, they were fast and hardy, well trained, got used to the owner, unmistakably fulfilling all his commands on the battlefield. The Greeks and Romans claimed that the Parthian horses are descended from the "heavenly", the distinguishing feature of the latter was the bloody sweat that came out when running fast. Getting magical horses or their Parthian offspring was the cherished goal of many of the Parthian neighbors. The Roman military leader Marcus Aurelius was happy when, as a military booty, he got a Parthian horse, which could ride for 8-9 days, overcoming up to 150 km daily.
Malaga – one of the oldest cities in Europe
Rincón de la Victoria and its caves
El Puerto de La Duquesa and its castle
Casares – the prototype of the Andalusian white village
Genalguacil and its Museum of Contemporary Art
Colomares castle – the largest monument in the world to Christopher Columbus
Automobile and Fashion Museum in Malaga
Utrera and its historic center
Seville and its UNESCO heritage
Los Molares castle and its history
The Parthians also used dogs - terrible Hyrcanian killer dogs. Each of them could cope with an armed infantryman or horseman, a few - with a war elephant. The Greeks considered these dogs, which were raised in the province of Hyrcania subordinate to the Parthians, a cross between shepherd sheep dogs and Asia Minor lions. They had a strong, lean body, covered with short hair, and a huge lion-like muzzle framed by a mane of long, coarse hair.
Sword, spear and bow with arrows were able to use not only men, but also women. As a brave warrior, the Parthians sacredly honored the daughter of King Mithridates I, Rodoguna, talking about her courage to their children and grandchildren. Once, as the legend says, Rodoguna was swimming in the pool. At this time, a galloping messenger informed her of the approach of the enemy cavalry. Without hesitation, only wringing out her wet hair, Rodoguna put on military armor and jumped on her horse, vowing to complete her toilette only after victory. At the head of a small personal guard, she, like a whirlwind, ran into enemies who did not expect such a fierce and swift attack. Rodoguna put them to flight and returned to the palace with victory. This story was so popular among the Parthians that they ordered artists to depict Rodoguna in the form of a beautiful woman who emerged from the water after bathing. Strength and courage were not particularly emphasized
To Madrid (Madrid community) 5 hr (532 km) via A-66 and A-5
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Alhama de Aragón and its castle
Anento and its red architecture
Aragon sea – black bass fishing
Calatayud and its fortified enclosure
Rodoguna was a worthy daughter of Mithridates, who annexed vast territories to his possessions, entering ancient Babylon and Seleucia on the Tigris, where in 140 BC. crowned and assumed the title of king of Babylon and Uruk.
Mithridates established a new order of counting time: from the 1st day of the month of Nisan (April) 247 BC. the first year of the new Parthian era began. At the same time, the king ordered the removal of all treasures from the temples in Susa: the Parthians needed funds to replenish and equip the troops. To the northern borders of their possessions moved hordes of Sakas - nomadic peoples who from ancient times lived in the regions of Drangiana and Ara-khosia bordering on the Parthians, gradually strengthening themselves in the eastern Iranian and northwestern Indian lands. They were worthy opponents. The Parthians had to exert all their strength, to pay with the lives of their two kings - Phraates P and Artaban II, in order to defeat the enemies. This was succeeded by Mithridates II (124-87 BC), who at the same time annexed a number of new territories to his possessions and concluded an agreement with Rome on the division of spheres of influence. The Euphrates river became the border between the two world powers facing each other.
Fuendetodos – the birthplace of Francisco de Goya
Yesa reservoir and its touristic activities
Piedra monastery and its park with waterfalls
Sos del Rey Católico – a Historic-Artistic Site
Tarazona was declared a Historic-Artistic Site in 1965
Uncastillo – a Historic-Artistic complex
Parthia of the times of Mithridates II is a really powerful state. Far and near countries establish friendly relations with her or seek to enlist her support. Mithridates II begins to call himself the king of kings. So he was also called the ambassadors who arrived from China. The Han Emperor Wudi wanted to establish friendly relations with the Parthians, through whose possessions an important section of the Great Silk Road passed. The Parthians themselves were well aware of the benefits of controlling the roads along which trade caravans traveled from East to West and from West to East. They did not allow Roman traders here, stopping any attempt on their part to explore these routes and collect more information about the countries of the East.
Trade duties were one of the most important items of income for the state treasury. Some of the goods brought by caravans from different countries were sold at the bazaars in the major cities of Parthia. There one could buy Chinese silks, Indian cotton, embroideries from Babylon, precious stones, iron products of the masters of Syria and India, ebony, sandalwood, ivory, incense, healing ointments and powders, spices and other foreign goods. The most rare and precious items settled in the royal treasuries.
Albarracín and its architecture
Alcañiz – the capital of the Lower Aragon historical region
Cantavieja has been declared a historical-artistic site since 1981
Cretas and its parish Mannerist church
Linares de Mora and its castle
Mirambel and its historic center
Mora de Rubielos and its castle
Rubielos de Mora and its attractions
Teruel and its Mudejar heritage
Villarroya de los Pinares and its attractions
One of such treasuries of the Parthian kings was discovered by archaeologists in southern Turkmenistan near the small village of Bagir. It was located inside the Mihrdatkert fortress, later known as Old Nisa. The walls of the fortress were built of clay to a height of more than 10 m, reaching a thickness of 9 m at the base. They were reinforced with 43 rectangular towers, and the corner towers, which were of particular importance in the defense, were real bastions. Numerous loopholes in the shape of a swallow's tail cut through the thickness of the walls, giving the greatest view from the walls to the surroundings and protecting the defending warriors. In one of the corner towers there was an entrance to the fortress, to which a gradually rising ramp, parallel to the line of the wall, led. Thus, all those who entered the fortress were under the gunpoint of the garrison guarding it.
Agüero and Mallos rock formations
Aínsa – a Historic-Artistic Site
Alquézar and its collegiate castle-church of Santa María la Mayor
Canfranc International railway station – Titanic of the Mountains
Castle of Loarre – a National Monument
Ésera river and Linsoles reservoir
Graus was declared a historical-artistic site in 1975
Huesca – the door of the Pyrenees
Jaca – former capital of Aragon
Roda de Isábena and its Cathedral of San Vicente
Royal Monastery of San Juan de la Peña
San Pedro de Siresa – a Romanesque monastery
Santa Cruz de la Serós and its First Romanesque churches
Cerler with 77 km of slopes, including the longest in Spain (9 km)
Candanchú is one the highest ski resort in the Spanish Pyrenees
Inside the fortress there were palaces, temples, service and utility rooms, including a treasury. The square building of the treasury had blank walls and a flat roof. Probably, in the last years of the existence of the Parthian state, the treasury was damaged by an earthquake, perhaps it was robbed. But even what archaeologists have found suggests what great values were stored in it. Details of Parthian weapons and precious horse harness, various vessels, both locally made and Egyptian and Syrian, fragments of jewelry made of glass, mastic, bone, shells, gems and precious metals, coins of Alexander the Great, Seleucids, Arsacids and kings were found. Greco-Bactrian kingdom. Some of the coins were counterfeit. Therefore, vigilant Parthian treasurers tested them by cutting them on the side or cutting them in half.
Numerous and well-preserved works of art were found: sculptures made of bone, metal, stone, part of the ceremonial throne of the Ar-Shakid kings and a large number of rhytons - horn-shaped ivory vessels decorated with carvings, paintings, and sculptural details. Perhaps these precious vessels were used during solemn ceremonies or palace feasts.
Avilés – a Historic-Artistic Site
As Figueiras and its attractions
Gijón – the capital of the Green Coast
Indiano Archive Foundation and its museum
La Quinta de Selgas – Asturian Versailles
Llanes and the Gulpiyuri – shortest beach in the world
Oviedo – the capital of the Principality of Asturias
Ribadesella and the International Descent of the Sella
Sanctuary of Covadonga – cradle of Spain
Tapia and its Peñarronda beach
Tazones – the Historic-Artistic Complex
Torazu and its rural architecture
Aguinaga Museum of Mercedes-Benz
Bakio – ideal for surfers of all levels
Bilbao – the most visited city of the Basque Country
Biscay bridge – a World Heritage Site by UNESCO
Butron castle inspired by Bavarian castle models
Cabo Machichaco lighthouse – the northernmost point of Basque country
Castle of Muñatones dates back to 1339
It is known that among the Parthians there was a widespread custom to drink an intoxicating drink, "giving comprehensive knowledge." During this ceremony, they discussed especially important matters.
One of the Nysian rhytons is decorated with a relief image, the plot of which can be associated with the legend of the Theban king Pentheus. The curious king secretly entered the festival dedicated to the god of wine, Dionysus. Among the participants in the sacred rites in honor of Dionysus - the Bacchantes - was the mother of Pen-they, Queen Agave. Intoxicated with wine, the Bacchantes mistook the king for a sacrificial animal and tore it to pieces, sacrificing it to their god. This Greek legend was the basis of Euripides' drama "The Bacchae", known at the Arsacid court. It was once played by actors in the presence of Tsar Orod, the winner of the Romans at Carrhae. At the climax of the performance, a crowd of actors portraying Bacchantes brought onto the stage on raised thyrsus rods not the rag head of the mythical Pentheus, but the head of the defeated Roman commander Crassus and threw it at the feet of the Parthian king to the enthusiastic cries of those present.
Durango and its historic center
Mundaka is famous for its surfing
Torre Loizaga car museum and its Rolls-Royce collection
Balenciaga Museum – born to be fashionable
Hondarribia – the northernmost resort of the Costa Vasca
Oñati and its first Basque university
Orodes did not enjoy his military successes for long. Behind him, a conspiracy was brewing, headed by Prince Fraat. In 37 BC Horod accepted death at the hands of his son, who was named King Phraates IV. Having taken the throne, the parricide king faced problems vital for the state: an exhausting military confrontation with Rome, battles in which the most talented commanders and brave Parthian warriors died. During military clashes, trade froze and the flow of gold to the state treasury dried up. Finally, the ongoing strife both in the family of the king and among his courtiers largely contributed to the weakening of the state. In 20 BC the Parthians had to conclude an agreement with Rome, according to which they returned all the surviving captive soldiers of Crassus and his successors. Later, four sons and four grandsons of King Phraates went to Rome as hostages. But the fate of those who remained at home was even worse. A few years later, all members of the Arshakids family died as a result of palace unrest and conspiracies. The Parthian throne turned out to be free, and Roman diplomacy, supported by the troops, helped its man, Vanon, occupy it. The once mighty Parthia found itself under the control of an old adversary. It seemed that her glory and power remained in the distant past. However, in 10 AD. son-in-law of Phraates IV Arta-ban rebelled, expelled the Roman henchmen and proclaimed himself king, initiating a new Parthian dynasty of younger Arsacids.
Sanctuary of Our Lady of Arantzazu
Sanctuary of the Virgin of Guadalupe
San Sebastian – Spanish royal resort
Urkulu Reservoir and its hiking routes
Zarautz and its longest beach in Basque coast
Zumaia – the longest set of continuous rock strata in the world
Abbey of Santa María de Viaceli
Bárcena Mayor and its rural architecture
Carmona and its rural architecture
Castro-Urdiales – a Historic-Artistic Site
Comillas – the Spanish royal resort since 19th century
Ebro reservoir – one of the largest reservoirs in Spain
The state of the Parthians was to exist for more than 200 years. These were difficult times. The Parthians had to defend the western borders from the onslaught of the Romans, repel the raids of the nomads, suppress the uprisings of the conquered peoples, gradually recognizing their independence. Trade grew weak, goods were sent in other ways, palace unrest led to disorder and complete anarchy in the state. When in 212 AD. an uprising broke out in the southwest, in Pars, the Parthians did not have the strength to suppress it in time, because. the state was ruled by two irreconcilable enemies - the brothers Vologez V and Artaban V, unable to reconcile and act together.
Laredo – a Historic-Artistic Site
Liérganes – a historical-artistic complex
Picos de Europa – national park
Santander – the capital of Cantabria
Santillana del Mar – a Historical-Artistic complex
Santo Toribio de Liébana monastery – a National Monument
San Vicente de la Barquera and its attractions
Torrelavega and its attractions
Arévalo – a site of cultural interest
The Parthian state was doomed. The almost 500-year rule of the Arshakids' house ended ingloriously. Others rushed to their throne, dishonored by betrayal, spattered with the blood of victims and executioners. One of them, Artashir, the son of Papak from the Sasan clan, will be able to establish himself on it, starting a new countdown, opening a new page in history.
Ávila – the capital of the province
Bonilla de la Sierra and its Collegiate Church
Mombeltrán Castle was erected by Beltrán de la Cueva, first Duke of Albuquerque
Aranda de Duero and its wineries
Burgos – the capital of the province
Caleruega – the birthplace of Saint Dominic
Covarrubias – a National Historic-Artistic Site
Frías – the smallest city in Spain
Miranda de Ebro and its attractions
Peñaranda de Duero – a Historical Complex
Sindhu - this is how the inhabitants of the country that stretched along its banks called their river; it was known to the Greeks as Indos, and to the natives themselves as the Indus. Easily and naturally, while retaining a recognizable originality, it was transferred from Asia to Europe and the enchanting word India sounded in many languages.
On the territory that in ancient times bore this general name and spread out in a vast triangle between the Arabian Sea, the Himalayas and the Bay of Bengal, at the end of the 20th century. There are three independent states: India itself, Bangladesh and Pakistan, through whose lands the legendary Indus flows.
In ancient times, the expanses of Ancient India (namely, it will be discussed) were inhabited by Dravidians - short, dark-skinned, black-haired people with wide noses. Among the inhabitants of South India there are many of their descendants, surprisingly reminiscent of their distant ancestors.
Civil strife, natural disasters, epidemics, invasions were a thing of the past, becoming milestones of a leisurely time. Over the centuries, the Dravidians were replaced by numerous tribes that differed from one another in their way of life, language, beliefs, culture, degree of development, and even the appearance of their representatives.
The inhabitants of the foothills, who did not know the northern winds under the protection of the Himalayas, looked with reverent awe at the highest mountains in the world, sincerely considering the dazzling peaks as the abode of the most revered gods.
Poza de la Sal – a Historic-Artistic Site
Santa María de la Vid – the first Premonstratensian monastery in Spain
Santo Domingo de Silos and its monastery
Dependent on wildlife, the ancient Indians had a deep respect for the water element: after all, water is the key to a rich harvest, and harvest is life. The worship of water, dating back thousands of years, continues in modern times: until now, the Indians consider their most full-flowing river, the Ganges, to be sacred...
If even today the flora of India is striking in its diversity and tropical splendor, then many, many centuries ago, forests covered almost all of its territory. They not only gave the ancient inhabitants of the fairyland wood for handicrafts, weapons, buildings and heating of dwellings, but also fed them with nuts, berries, bananas, mangoes, citrus fruits and other trees. The forests were also supplied with medicinal plants and spices, without which even then Indian cuisine was unthinkable. By the way, later it was spices and incense, which were valued more than gold in Europe, that aroused such interest in India and, to a certain extent, "pushed" Christopher Columbus to the discovery of America... The ancient Indians hunted forest animals and domesticated some of them. We owe much to them that humanity has many varieties of domestic animals, from chicken to elephant.
Astorga – the European birthplace of chocolate
Carucedo lake stands out due to the Roman excavations of Las Médulas
Castrillo de los Polvazares – a Historic-Artistic Complex
Congosto and its Bárcena reservoir
Cornatel castle was declared an Asset of Cultural Interest in 1949
León – the capital of the province
Molinaseca – a Historic-Artistic Site
Monastery of Saint Mary of Carracedo – a National Historical-Artistic monument
Monastery of San Pedro de Montes was founded around the year 635
Peñalba de Santiago and its rural architecture
Ponferrada and its Templar castle
Roman bridge known as Passo Honroso
Villafranca del Bierzo – a Historic-Artistic Site
Virgen de la Peña Sanctuary dates back to the 13th century
However, the inhabitants of India had to wage a constant struggle with the forests, not only clearing land for fields and gardens, but also fighting the advancing jungle from day to day, risking a poisonous snake or becoming a victim of a predator.
The rural population was very numerous. The peasants grew several varieties of wheat, barley, sesame, beans, rice, planted gardens. In dry times, they resorted to artificial irrigation. Archaeological excavations made it possible to establish that almost every peasant household had cows, goats, sheep and poultry. Many Indians kept dogs and cats. Of all domestic animals, cows were the most valued, considered the main wealth of the family. Often because of them there were even armed clashes.
Craftsmen settled in cities, and representatives of each profession lived on the same street. There were, for example, streets of weavers, potters, and jewelers. Household and temple utensils, weapons, production tools were made of bronze and copper. Gold and silver were used for jewelry. Trade flourished. Trade relations with Sumer were especially developed.
History is reluctant to reveal its secrets. But sometimes they become known almost by accident. Once an Indian archaeologist R.D. Banerjee led the excavations. Finding a wonderful monument of the II century. BC, he was very happy and tried to finish the work as soon as possible, when he suddenly discovered the remains of a more ancient culture a little deeper. Thus, the famous Mohenjo-Daro (Hill of the Dead), a whole city that existed more than 4 thousand years ago, arose from oblivion. An even more ancient city of Harappa was also found. By his name, everything created in that era is called the monuments of the Harappan culture.
Aguilar de Campoo – a Historic-Artistic Site
Church of San Juan Bautista – the most original church of all the Visigothic art in Spain
Frómista and its locks on the Canal of Castile
Monastery of Santa María la Real – an old abbey of the Premonstratensian order
Palencia – the capital of the province
Picos de Europa – the second most visited national park in Spain
Scientists have established that Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa are the two largest cities of the ancient civilization, possibly the capitals of large political associations. At the highest point in the city stood a citadel, fortified with powerful walls, where people usually escaped from floods. Inside the citadel was a huge pool for ritual ablutions. With the help of a special device, fresh water was supplied here.
Béjar – a historical-artistic complex
Candelario and its architecture
Ciudad Rodrigo – a Historic-Artistic Site
Duques de Alba castle dates back to the 12th century
La Alberca was the first Spanish town to be declared a Historic-Artistic Site in 1940
Ledesma – a historical-artistic complex
Miranda del Castañar – a historical-artistic complex
Salamanca – the capital of the province
Salamanca car museum and its collection
Sanctuary of Nuestra Señora de la Peña de Francia – the highest Marian sanctuary in the world
The wide and straight streets of these cities are surprising, the extremely durable brick (even now it is difficult to split it), from which buildings were erected. The houses were two or even three stories high. Instead of windows, small holes were made in the thick walls for lighting: both the thickness of the walls and the tiny windows better protected from the Indian heat. Even the upper floors of the houses had running water to perform ablutions without leaving the dwelling.
Bronze, copper, stone sculptures found by archaeologists help to imagine what the inhabitants of Mohenjo-Daro looked like. Here is a dancer at the temple - young, long-legged, slender, with many bracelets on her arm. And here is the priest. He is very handsome. His eyes are half closed - the priest is immersed in prayer. His robe, thrown over his left shoulder, is decorated with an ornament in the form of a sacred shamrock. Carefully cut hair is intercepted by a wide ribbon falling down the back; on the forehead is a round buckle. The sculpture is made of white steatite (a kind of talc), which has retained traces of red paste. The eyes are made of white mother-of-pearl and this makes them seem alive.
Coca – the birthplace of Roman Emperor Theodosius I
Coca castle – one of the best examples of Spanish Mudejar brickwork
Linares reservoir – a part of the Hoces del Río Riaza Natural Park
Maderuelo – a historical complex
Royal Palace of La Granja de San Ildefonso
Segovia – the capital of the province
Sepúlveda – a historical-artistic complex
The society of ancient India was divided into castes (the Indians call them "jatis", and scientists - "varnas"). Belonging to a caste was determined by the birth of a person and was inherited. Representatives of each caste were engaged from generation to generation in the same profession, worshiped the same gods, strictly followed the established rules in relation to each other and members of other castes. One of the hymns of the Rig Veda describes the emergence of castes as follows. There was a mythical first man Purush. Brahmins came from his mouth, kshatriyas from his hands, vaishyas from his thighs, and sudras from his feet. Shudras were considered "ekajati" - "once born." How could members of the first three castes be born twice? In childhood, over the boys of the first three castes, a complex rite of "upanayana" was performed, accompanied by a solemn putting on of the sacred thread "upavita". After that, the boy was considered born a second time. The Shudras were not honored with such a rite.
The most honorable place in society was occupied, of course, by the Brahmins, who performed priestly duties, as they knew the sacred doctrine. They were called "avadhya" - "inviolable". The killing of a Brahmin was considered the greatest crime.
The kings, the military nobility were represented by kshatriyas - "endowed with power." The well-known word “raja” (king, leader) refers specifically to kshatriyas.
El Burgo de Osma – a Historic-Artistic Site
La Cuerda del Pozo reservoir and its tourist activities
Monteagudo de las Vicarías and its castle
Soria – the capital of the province
Santa María la Real de Huerta – a Cistercian monastery
Free community members - farmers, cattle breeders, artisans, merchants - belonged to the Vaishyas.
The position of the Shudras in ancient Indian society was very difficult. They were not supposed to do anything except hard work everyday and humble service to the “twice-born”.
The development of ancient India sometimes seemed to be interrupted and went backwards. So, for example, in the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. semi-nomadic tribes of the Aryans come and settle in India. Indian civilization is disappearing. There is a return to the primitive communal system. Only in the first half of the 1st millennium BC. states reappear. Cities also appear, but no longer large, characteristic of the Harappan culture, but small, very well fortified “puras”. The houses in them were stone, wooden, adobe, necessarily protected by an earthen rampart. Craftsmen reappear. Carpenters and blacksmiths enjoyed special respect among them.
Castle of La Mota belongs to the School of Valladolid
Medina del Campo – the capital of the Rueda Denomination of Origin
Tordesillas and its attractions
Valladolid – the capital of Castile and León
In the lower reaches of the Ganges was Magadha - the largest and most powerful state of that time. It reached its highest power in the 4th-3rd centuries. BC. under the Mauryan dynasty, which united almost the entire territory of Hindustan under its rule. Favorable conditions arise for the development of the economy, the improvement of the political system, and the flourishing of culture.
In the IV century. AD a strong power of the Guptas arose, which existed for almost two centuries.
Nandas, Mauryas, Shungas, Kushans, Guptas - each of these Indian dynasties is interesting in its own way. The Nandas had one of the largest armies in the Ancient East. The first king of the Mauryan Empire was the legendary Chandragupta. Ka-nishka was the king of the vast Kushan Empire, through which the Great Silk Road passed in antiquity.
This fabulous country also attracted the great conqueror of antiquity, Alexander the Great (see the article “Philip II and Alexander the Great”). His army crossed the Hindu Kush and split up in the valley of the Coffen River (now Kabul). One part of it, led by Alexander, moved north, the other, under the command of Perdikkas and Hephaestion, crossed the Indus and prepared to give battle. However, the warriors were expected to have a plentiful meal and rest. The local raja Taxil not only did not intend to fight the Greek-Macedonians, but even gave them horses and elephants.
Along with King Taxil, history has preserved the name of the brave King Pora, the ruler of a powerful state in northwestern India, who, despite the numerical superiority of the aliens, decided to give them an open battle. In 326 BC there was a fierce battle. The Indian army was defeated. Bleeding, Por stood before the conqueror and demanded that he be treated as a king should be treated. Alexander, admired by his courage, not only returned Porus his possessions, but even presented new lands.
Alexander failed to conquer all of India. In the conquered territories, he left governors. The last of them, Evdem, left India in 317 BC, that is, already 6 years after the death of Alexander the Great. The contact of the two cultures turned out to be short-lived, but it did not go unnoticed: the influence of Greek culture is noticeable in the beautiful images of North Indian Gandharian sculpture.
Benavente and the Church of Santa María del Azogue
Monastery of Santa María de Moreruela – a Cistercian monastery
Puebla de Sanabria – a historical complex
Sanabria lake – the largest glacial lake in Spain and the Iberian Peninsula
Zamora – the capital of the province
In the II century. BC e. India broke up into many state formations, unable to repel the constant raids of the Parthians, Scythians and other nomads.
Indian history is full of surprises. To learn about one of them, let's go back a little. In 268 BC the Indian throne was occupied by the powerful ruler of the Mauryan dynasty Ashoka (“Deprived of sorrow”). He established diplomatic and trade relations with many countries of the West and East. Under him, the state became one of the largest in the East. In his youth, he did not differ in the softness of his temper and even earned the nickname Chanda-Ashoka ("Cruel Ashoka"). In the eighth year of his reign, he defeated the state of Kalinga (the territory of the modern Indian state of Orissa), received additional political and commercial advantages. It seemed that the great king was destined to continue to wage wars and strengthen his power.
However, Ashoka’s rock edict, left for posterity, read: “... And no matter how many people at the time when the Kalingans were subdued, killed or died, or taken away from there, even a hundredth of this number, even a thousandth of it now burdens the thought Pleasing to the gods ”(as Ashoka called himself). He repented of what he had done.
Albacete – the largest and the most populated city in Castilla-La Mancha
Alcalá del Júcar and its castle
Carcelén castle dates from the 14th century
Chinchilla de Montearagón and its attractions
Chinchilla de Montearagón Castle is located in one of the most strategic places in Spain
Ashoka, once merciless, in another edict instructs: "And if anyone harms, the Delightful One considers that it is necessary to spare, as much as possible to forgive." The unexpected metamorphosis of Ashoka is explained by the fact that the king became an adherent of Buddhism, a religion that arose in India in the 6th century. BC, and began to follow its rules.
India is also the birthplace of Hinduism, one of the oldest religions on earth, which originated in the 4th millennium BC. A distinctive feature of Hinduism is polytheism. The ancient Indians believed that the gods, like people, love delicious food, beautiful clothes, they are also friends and quarrel. Surya (god of the sun), Dyaus-Pitar (god of the sky), Ushas (goddess of the dawn), Parjanya (god of thunder), Sarasvati (goddess of the river of the same name), Agni (god of fire) are considered the gods of the most ancient origin. Indra was especially revered - the lord of rain, who defeated Vritra - the demon of drought. Later, the main gods of the Indians were Brahma (the beginning of all beginnings in the world), Shiva (the destroyer) and Vishnu (the guardian).
Alcázar de San Juan and its mills
Alhambra castle may have an Umayyad origin
Almagro – a historic-artistic complex
Calatrava la Nueva – a medieval castle and convent
Campo de Criptana and its windmills
Ciudad Real and its attractions
Doña Berenguela castle – a former Moorish fortress
Lagunas de Ruidera Natural Park
Palace of the Marquis of Santa Cruz – the headquarters of the General Archive of the Spanish Navy
Peñarroya castle dates back to 1198
Villanueva de los Infantes – National Historic Site
The ancient Indians imagined Vishnu as a beautiful young man reclining on the mythical snake Shesha, which swims in the waters of the cosmic ocean. Vishnu has four arms, in which he holds a conch, a wheel, a club and a lotus flower. Vishnu has the gift of transforming himself into animals and humans. Once, turning into a dwarf, Vishnu came to the demon king Bali and asked him to give him as much land as he could cover in three steps. Laughing, Bali willingly gave permission, but soon regretted it: the dwarf grew to a gigantic size and covered the sky with the first step, and the earth with the second. Seeing the horror of Bali, the magnanimous Vishnu did not take the third step.
High in the Himalayas on Mount Kailash, the god Shiva lives. His appearance is formidable - Shiva is entwined with cobras, dressed in a tiger skin, wears a necklace of skulls. He is many-sided and many-armed, on his forehead is an all-withering third eye. As the legend says, saving people, Shiva drank poison, and his neck turned blue. Therefore, it is often called "Blue-throated". Shiva has a trident in his hand, and he always performs accompanied by the bull Nandin. Shiva and his wife Parvati, which means "Goryanka", have two sons. The first is the four-armed Ganesha, an elephant-headed man riding a rat. Until now, Ganesha is revered as the god of wisdom and good luck. His brother, the war god Skanda, has six heads. He rides a huge peacock, holding a bow in one hand and arrows in the other.
The ancient Indians deified animals. The sacred cow Surabhi was especially revered, which means “Good-smelling” in translation. According to legend, this cow resides in the paradise of the god Indra. The Indians worshiped snakes - nagas. In modern India, there is a state called Nagaland - "Land of Serpents".
In ancient India, it was customary to visit holy places. It was considered a special virtue to visit Hardvar, the place where the Ganges River flows out onto the plain, and at least once in a lifetime, no matter how far a person lives, to bathe in its sacred waters.
Archaeological Park of Segóbriga
Belmonte castle – one of the most emblematic in Spain
Garcimuñoz castle and its architecture
Toba reservoir on the Júcar river
Uña lagoon – a part of the Serranía de Cuenca natural park
The invaluable heritage of the great Indian culture is the Mahabharata - a huge collection of legends, fairy tales, traditions, religious and philosophical texts. The author of this grandiose work is unknown. There are many stories in the Mahabharata, the main one of which tells about the struggle of two royal families - the Pandavas and the Kauravas. In a long dispute, the Pandava brothers won, but not without divine help: the chariot of one of them, the brave and powerful Arjuna, was ruled by his mentor the great Krishna. The conversation between Krishna and Arjuna before the battle is depicted in the Bhagavad Gita (Divine Song), which is considered the most sacred part of the Mahabharata. Some parts of the Bhagavad-gi-you sound quite modern:
Whoever has conquered himself is his own ally, Whoever does not control himself, he, being at enmity, is hostile to himself.
The epic poem Ramayana, in contrast to the Mahabharata, is a single and coherent work attributed to the poet Valmiki. The Ramayana tells about the eldest son of King Dasaratha, Rama, who, due to the deceit of one of the royal wives, is forced to go into exile with his brother Lakshman and his faithful wife Sita. They lived in the forest, eating roots and fruits. The king of demons, the evil Ravana, kidnapped Sita and carried him away. In a terrible rage, Rama, united with the monkey leader Hanuman, kills the kidnapper and frees the beautiful Sita. Returning to the capital, Rama becomes king.
Almonacid de Zorita and its attractions
Entrepeñas reservoir and its water activities
Galve de Sorbe castle was built in the 15th century for the house of Zúñiga
Guadalajara and its attractions
Jadraque castle dates to the late 15th century
Monastery of Santa María de Monsalud – an old Cistercian monastery
Molina de Aragón and its castle – one of the biggest in Spain
Recópolis – an ancient city of Visigothic origin
Sigüenza – a historic-artistic complex
Torija castle first built by the Knights Templar in the 11th century
Zorita de los Canes castle was declared a Historic-Artistic Monument in 1931
"Ramayana" and "Mahabharata" can be called an encyclopedia of the life of Ancient India: there is so much information about the country, people's customs, government and culture.
The ancient Indians were versed not only in literature, but also in mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. It was they who gave the world chess.
The science of healing was called Ayurveda - "the science of long life." The ancient Indian physician was at the same time a botanist, a pharmacologist, a biologist, and a psychologist. Skilled surgeons, they not only removed arrows from wounds almost painlessly for the patient, but even restored the correct shape of noses and ears crippled in battle, i.e. did plastic surgery. Well, in the treatment of snake bites, Indian doctors knew no equal!
Barcience castle dates back to the XV century
Casarrubios del Monte castle dates back to the 15th century
Castillo de la Vela was declared a historical monument of art in 1931
El Toboso – the homeland of Dulcinea, a character from Don Quixote de la Mancha
Guadamur castle was declared a historical-artistic monument
Escalona and its castle-palace
La Puebla de Montalbán and its attractions
Orgaz castle was built in the 14th century
Puñoenrostro castle dates back to the XIV century
Talavera de la Reina and its pottery craft
The most interesting monuments of architecture have come down to us from ancient times. Buddhist sanctuaries-stupas outwardly very much resemble a bell. When looking at them, thoughts about their cosmic origin unconsciously arise - they are so unusual. Their basis is an artificial mound, lined with bricks or covered with whitewashed plaster. The top of the structure crowns
square terrace "harmika" ("palace of the gods"). A spire rushes upward from its center, on which umbrellas (three or seven), called "amalaka", are strung. Seven umbrellas symbolize seven steps from earth to heaven, and three - the number of heavenly spheres. Inside there is a small chamber (sometimes more than one) with the remains of the Buddha or Buddhist saints. All prayers and rituals are performed only outside.
The most famous is the stupa sanctuary in Sanchi, which was built from the 3rd to the 1st century BC. BC. On its famous four gates, called "torana", the whole of India is represented: nature, architecture, traditions and legends associated with the life of gods and people, fantastic creatures, wildlife, trees and flowers, the biography of the Buddha. You can look at the gate for hours - how to read a fascinating book.
Ancient Indian civilization had a huge impact on many countries of the East. It is impossible to understand or study the history and culture of the peoples of South and Southeast Asia without knowing the history of Ancient India. She teaches a lot today. Do not forget the wisdom of the Vedas:
Let there be no hate
From brother to brother, and from sister to sister!
Turning to each other
following one vow, Speak a good word!
Ancient China... There, since time immemorial, the earth has been yellow. And the yellow waters of the great river, which they called so - Yellow - Huang He. Sitting on its shore, the goddess Nuwa sculpted little men from yellow clay. They slipped out of her life-giving hands and populated this land. Their lord was called the Yellow Sovereign - Huangdi. So the legend tells.
Fertile soil and an abundance of water determined the main occupation of the ancient inhabitants of the Huang He Valley - agriculture. Exploring new lands far from water, people learned how to irrigate them by laying canals.
They began to get a larger harvest when tools began to be made not from stone, as before, but from bronze and iron. An arrow with a metal tip instead of a flint or bone one and an iron sword instead of a stone or club were much more convenient for hunting and in battle. The ability to use them to appropriate the property of neighbors, to annex foreign lands gave rise to frequent wars between various clans and tribes. Clashes with neighbors-foreigners continued with the advent of state formations: destinies, principalities, kingdoms.
The Shang tribe with resettlement in the Huang He valley began to be called Yin. It settled on new lands, after a bloody struggle, driving out the Qiang or Xia tribe that lived here earlier.
The shang-yin elders turned from tribal leaders into sole rulers. Among the subjects, the idea of them as "sons of Heaven", who received power at the behest of divine forces, was strengthened. This was a turning point in the formation of the state in the Central Plain, as the Yellow River valley has long been called. "Zhong Guo" - "Middle State" - this is how the people of China themselves began to call their country.
The state of Shang-Yin, having existed from 1766 to 1122 BC, fell under the rule of the Zhou tribe, whose rulers, who ruled from 1122 to 247 BC, called themselves vans - kings. The first of these was U-van - "King Warrior". He handed out lands and titles to his comrades-in-arms: “gun”, “hou”, “bo”, “zi”, “nan”, which is similar to the European “duke”, “prince”, “count”, “baron”, “baronet”. Under the onslaught of neighboring tribes and their own tribal nobility, the Zhou kingdom broke up into destinies. This time (from 770 to 403 BC) was sometimes called by the inhabitants of the Middle State "Spring and Autumn".
The rulers of the destinies fought with each other and with neighbors-foreigners, who were considered savages. Spring and Autumn were replaced by the hard times of the Warring States, which lasted almost two centuries - from 403 to 221 BC. The rulers of the seven kingdoms entered into a deadly fight. “In the battles for the capture of cities, the dead overwhelmed the cities,” wrote a contemporary, “and in the battles for the lands, the battlefields were completely covered with the bodies of the dead.” After one such battle near Changping in 260 BC. the warriors of the Qin kingdom buried alive 400 thousand warriors of the Zhao kingdom who had surrendered.
The kingdom of Qin emerged victorious from the war. His victories over his neighbors were facilitated by the new organization of the troops: there were young people in the attacking detachments, and elderly soldiers in the defenders.
Having conquered all six kingdoms of rivals and perpetrated massacre there, the ruler of Qin, the thirteen-year-old Zheng-wang, declared himself "huangdi" (lord, emperor) and began to be called Qin Shw-huangdi - the first emperor of Qin. In the lands subject to him, he put an end to the power of the specific rulers. The whole country was divided into regions, and those, in turn, into counties. The heads of the regions and counties were appointed from the capital and could be removed at any moment at the will of the Huangdi. In the former six kingdoms, tortoise shells, shells, and pieces of jasper were used as money. Qin Shi Huangdi ordered to pay only in gold and copper coins. Life in the state had to go according to general rules. The emperor introduced unified written signs, streamlined measures of weight and length, established the same gauge for wagons, approved laws binding on all, ordered all ritual utensils and weapons to be made according to a single model.
Qin Shih Huangdi considered strict observance of the laws to be the paramount condition for order in the country. The rebels were to be executed. The family was responsible for the behavior of each of its members. So they hoped to eradicate robbers and robbers.
Once in Sanyang, the capital of the new state, more than 460 people were executed. All residents of the country were informed about this. The strength of family ties was strongly supported. The murder of a husband who destroys his family by his behavior was ordered not to be considered a crime.
Strengthening the state from within, Qin Shih Huangdi did not disregard his neighbors either. Several hundred thousand Qin warriors laid down their lives during a campaign against the state of Nanyue in the south.
Once a soothsayer predicted: "The Qin Hus, in the north, will be destroyed." The alarmed sovereign sent thousands of people to build a defensive rampart against the "northern savages". All the unjust judges were sent to erect this rampart. This was the beginning of the construction of Wan li chang cheng (ten thousand li wall) - the Great Wall of China. Descending into the valleys and crawling up the mountain steeps, it stretched from west to east. Many generations of Chinese built new walls and towers and renovated old ones.
Qin Shi-huangdi did not know how to restrain his whims. Whenever his army crushed the power of one of the sovereign princes, the Qin ruler ordered to build himself the same palace as that of the defeated sovereign. Roads fenced with ramparts were laid to the palaces located outside the capital.
The tomb of Qin Shi Huangdi can compete with the pyramids of the pharaohs of Ancient Egypt. For 37 years, 720,000 people built it on Mount Li. First, they dug a huge hole in the mountain, getting to the bottom of three keys. Their water was diverted, and the holes were filled with copper. A mound was poured over the pit, planted with trees and shrubs. The bottom of the grave and the walls were lined with lacquered stones and jasper. Models of sacred mountains and mercury-filled likenesses of seas and rivers with gold and silver birds floating on them were placed on the floor. The ceiling was given the appearance of the sky with various luminaries. Together with Qin Shi-huangdi, several hundred girls were put in the grave, including 10 sisters of the sovereign.
Soon after the death of the first Huangdi, civil strife broke out. The winner in the struggle for power was Liu Bang, the volost chief. He laid the foundation for the Early, or Western, Han Dynasty (206 BC - 25 AD).
To stop robbery and bloodshed, to restore the economy destroyed during the internecine strife - these were the aspirations of the emperor of the new dynasty. “For murder - death to the murderer, for wounding and robbery - the appropriate punishment,” read the agreement concluded by Liu Bang with the elders of Qin. He abolished the cruel laws of the Qin Empire. At the end of the war with rivals, Liu Bang immediately disbanded part of the army, allowing the former soldiers to engage in agriculture and handicrafts. At the same time, some of the forced people were released.
The policy of restoring agriculture, carried out in the early stages of the existence of the Han Dynasty, has borne fruit. Previously abandoned and empty lands found owners and became fertile. The improvement of tools and methods of agricultural technology contributed to the rise in agricultural production. Zhao Guo, the “Authorized Grain Prospector”, applied the method of changing fields, i.e. tripartite system. The same Zhao Guo invented a steam plow. Two bulls were harnessed to it, driven by three plowmen. To increase the area of cultivated land, the irrigation system was expanded. River dams and canals were repaired and built. Under the rulers of the Han Dynasty, non-official people got the opportunity to develop minerals. During the reign of Emperor Wen-di, the population was allowed to freely mine salt and iron. The iron-working workshops created by the treasury contributed to the development of the craft. Skilled craftsmen worked in them.
National Museum of Science and Industry of Catalonia
Salvador Claret Automobile Collection
The first rulers of the House of Han had to focus on restoring the economy destroyed by internecine strife. By the time the sovereign Liu Che (140-87 BC) came to the throne, the central power was strengthened, the revival of production replenished the treasury. It was possible to turn forces to expand the borders. Liu Che justified his imperial name - Wu Di, "Sovereign Warrior".
But the wars were devastating for the country. Taxes to the treasury increased. Because of the wars, there were not enough hands to repair irrigation facilities. Floods and droughts have become more frequent. Destruction captured both the village and the city. Already at the end of Wu's reign, the people began to take up arms. Under Wu's successor, riots broke out in the capital itself.
The imperial throne was seized by the dignitary Wang Mang and in 9 AD. proclaimed himself ruler. To strengthen his power, he embarked on reforms. The response to them was powerful popular uprisings - the uprisings of the Red-brows, who painted their eyebrows red to distinguish themselves from the warriors of Wang Mang, and the inhabitants of the green forests (one of the centers of the uprising was in the mountains of Lulin shan, which means "Mountains of green forests").
On the wave of speeches against Wang Mang, who was killed in 23, Liu Xiu advanced. In 25, he assumed the title of sovereign, marking the beginning of the Eastern, or Late, Han Dynasty (25-220). It was called Eastern because the capital was moved from the west - from the city of Chang'an - to the east, to the city of Luoyang.
In the Eastern Han era, iron smelting and salt evaporation began to use hydraulic blowers in furnaces that ran on natural gas. A method was found for making cheap paper from tree bark, hemp combs, rags, and old fishing tackle.
The new dynasty was warlike. There were wars with North Vietnam, whose ruler refused to pay tribute to the Chinese court; Chinese troops fought fiercely with the Huns in Central Asia.
Monastery of Santa Maria de Pedralbes
Monastery of Sant Feliu de Cadins
Monastery of Sant Pere de Rodes
Monastery of Santa Maria de Bellpuig de les Avellanes
Royal Abbey of Santa Maria de Poblet
Sanctuary de la Mare de Déu de Lord
Sanctuary of the Virgin of Montserrat de Montferri
There was also a struggle within the country. The mortal blow for the Eastern Han dynasty was in 184 the peasant uprising of the Yellow Bandages (such bandages were worn on the heads of the rebels). The fall of the dynasty was completed by the civil strife of officials and landowners. The last sovereign of the Eastern Han Xian-di was taken away from the capital and became a hostage of the military leaders Dong Zhuo and Cao Cao. Both, like their predecessor Wang Mang, are considered the greatest traitors in the history of China, for they betrayed their sovereign.
With the fall of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the unified Chinese state broke up into three independent kingdoms: Wei with its capital in Luoyang, Wu with its capital in Jiankang, and Shu with its capital in Chengdu.
Abandoned places: Radio Liberty Station, Pals
Abandoned places: The Torre Blanca fortifications of Castellciutat in La Seu D’Urgell
Rome Aqueduct of Ferreras (Devil’s Bridge)
Roman arch in Tarragona province
Rural house with bas-reliefs at Llers
Segre Olympic rafting Park in La Seu D’Urgell
Vall de Boí and its UNESCO churches
The period of the Three Kingdoms began, which lasted from 220 to 280 and was accompanied by strife and unrest. In 263, the troops of the Wei kingdom destroyed the Shu kingdom, in 280 they conquered the Wu kingdom. Since 265, the ruling dynasty called itself the Western Jin. 10 years after the unification of the country, a rebellion of eight princes broke out, then there was an invasion of the western and northern nomadic tribes in the region of the Central Plain.
In 316, the Western Jin dynasty was forced to move the capital to the south. In 318, its ruler was overthrown, and the Eastern dynasty began to rule
Jin (317-420), with its capital in Jiankang (modern Nanjing). In 420, the commander Liu Yu seized the throne, establishing the Song Dynasty. The period of the southern dynasties began. The Chinese states of the southern dynasties were opposed by the states created in northern China by the non-Chinese Xian-bi people. They were led by rulers from the Northern Wei, Northern Qi and Northern Zhou dynasties.
Despite the civil strife of the Khai rulers, by this time the formation and strengthening of the community of the Han people, based on the unity of language, writing and customs (primarily the custom of honoring ancestors) had taken place.
See here full list of Catalan castles (124 objects)
They say there is a beautiful country, surrounded on all sides by blue mountains. Why not go there? Iwa-ro turned to his brother Itsuse. Taking his silence as consent, Ivaro added resolutely: "Let's go there."
So, according to legend, the people of the Tenson and Izumo tribes migrated from the island of Kyushu to the island of Honshu. Ivaro put his people on the ships and set off. The campaign lasted 7 years. They rounded the shores of their native Kyushu, entered the Sea of Japan and landed on the western coast of Honshu. Moving east, they settled on flat lands, which later formed the possessions of the Yamato state they created, and were the center of the formation of the Japanese people.
However, Ivaro was met as an enemy by the elders of the tribes who had previously settled in these places. They put up strong resistance to the invaders. The local elder Nagasunz-hiko and his supporters fought especially hard. Ivaro even had to leave Yamato. Only after the death of the enemy, he and his fellow tribesmen returned there.
Banyoles – the largest lake in Catalonia
Canigou Peak – National Symbol of Catalonia
Cap de Creus — the easternmost point of the Iberian Peninsula
Salt Mountain Salins de Cardona
Alcalá de Henares – a UNESCO site
Nuevo Baztán and its historic center
The castle of Villarejo de Salvanés
Museum of Aeronautics and Astronautics
Mérida and its Roman heritage by UNESCO
Badajoz and its military heritage
Olivenza – the historic and artistic site
Fregenal de la Sierra – an important Historic-Artistic Complex
Alburquerque and its Luna castle
Medellín and its Roman theater
Higuera de Vargas and its castle
The García de Sola reservoir – one of the largest in Extremadura
The Hermitage of Nuestra Señora Virgen de Gracia
The Alconchel Castle dates back to the 12th century
The Encomienda Castle and its history
Capricho de Cotrina – a peculiar Gaudi style building
Don Benito museum of the classic cars
Guadalupe – one the most important pilgrimage centers in the Iberian Peninsula
Valencia de Alcántara and its attractions
Plasencia and its historical complex
Valverde de la Vera and its attractions
Alcántara and its Roman bridge
San Martín de Trevejo and its architecture
Robledillo de Gata and its architecture
The Monastery of Yuste – European Heritage
The Gabriel y Galán reservoir named for the Salamanca poet
The Museum of motorcycles and classic cars in Hervás
A Ponte Maceira and its bridge
Betanzos – the capital of Galician Gothic
Cape of Touriñán – the westernmost point of inland Spain
Having settled in a new place, Ivaro, as the legend says, first of all built a sanctuary to store three magical items: a metal mirror, a sword and a jasper necklace. According to beliefs, they were passed on as signs of power to her grandson, the god Ninigi, by the sun goddess Amaterasu. Possession of them gave Ivaro a reason to consider himself one of the heirs of the gods and consider his power divine. With his campaigns of conquest, he laid the foundation for the formation of a tribal union under the leadership of leaders, and later kings - ten-no. Ivaro, according to the Japanese chronicles, ruled from 660 to 585 BC. After his death, he was named "Jimmu-tenno" - "Heavenly" or "Divine King".
Starting with Jimmu-tenno, power in the family of the ruler of Yamato was inherited. At first, the king differed little in his position from the head of the ruling family or the leader of the tribe, but gradually his power extended to the other leaders of the Yamato. With the increase in the number of members of the royal family, it becomes customary to allocate land to them.
Corcubión – a Historic-Artistic Site
Estaca de Bares lighthouse – the northernmost point of inland Spain
Ferrol – the capital of the Spanish Navy’s Maritime Department of the North
Laxe and its famous city beach
Malpica – a northernmost part of the Costa da Morte
O Porto de Bares – the northernmost resort of mainland Spain
Pontedeume – the gate to the Fragas del Eumenota Natural Park
Santiago de Compostela – a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Rianxo is famous for its mussels cultivation
Ribeira is famous for its archaeological heritage
Important transformations in the country are associated with the activities of King Sujin (97-30 BC). He, as the Japanese chronicles testify, first introduced two types of taxes. The men had to send the spoils of their “bows and arrows” to the king, i.e. obtained by them on the hunt, and women - "handicrafts", i.e. fabrics. Sujin waged wars with aliens beyond his control. In four directions from Yamato, he sent commanders with an order: "If there are people who do not recognize our orders, take troops and throw these people to the ground."
His name - and it translates as "He who honors the gods" - Sujin owes the fact that he was not only the king, but also the high priest of Yamato.
Monastery of San Vicente del Pino
Monastery of San Xulián de Samos
Monastery of San Salvador de Ferreira
Monforte de Lemos and its attractions
Ribadeo – the easternmost resort of the Rías Altas
Puerto de Navacerrada ski resort
There was a custom in the country to bury living people together with the king or members of the royal family. Tradition says that King Suinin, who succeeded Sujin on the throne, was shocked by the spectacle of burying people in the ground. He told his advisors: “It is a pity to force those who loved someone during his lifetime to follow him after his death. Although it is an old custom, why observe it if it is bad? Think about how to stop following the dead? The resourceful head of the potters Nomi-io-sukune thought up. He suggested replacing living people with their clay images. The king liked the idea, and so they began to do it.
In Yamato there was a custom according to which each new king transferred the former capital to a new place, but within the country. This was done for two reasons. Firstly, because of the fear of living in the house of the deceased, which was not only a palace, but shrines were kept there. Over time, a common sanctuary of the Japanese kings was created in Ise. Thus commanded the sun goddess Amaterasu to Princess Yamato, daughter of King Sui-nin. Since then, the high priestesses of the shrine in Ise have always been virgin princesses. Secondly, the prince-heir lived separately in his headquarters, which was declared the capital.
Over time, the possessions of Yamato increased. Wars of conquest were fought during the reign of Keiko (71-130 AD). His son, Prince Yamato-takeru, which means "Hero of Yamato", fought against the recalcitrant tribes - Kumaso on the island of Kyushu and Ebi-su on the island of Hokkaido.
Castro Caldelas and its castle
Celanova and its Monastery of San Salvador
Monastery of San Esteban de Ribas del Sil
Monastery of Santa María de Melón
Monastery of Santa María de Oseira
Ourense – one of the European cities with the greatest thermal heritage
Ribadavia – a Historical Artistic Site since 1947
A Guarda – a southernmost part of the Rías Baixas resorts
Aldán and its San Cibrán beach
Baiona was the first city in Europe to receive news of the discovery of America
Cambados is famous for its Albariño wine
Hórreos de Combarro – a Historic Site famous for its stone granaries
Monastery of San Salvador de Lérez
Monastery of the Benedictine Mothers in Cuntis
Monastery of San Lourenzo de Carboeiro
O Porriño known for its granite production
Pontevedra – a Historic-Artistic Site
Sanctuary of Nosa Señora do Corpiño
Sanxenxo with its 36 km of beaches
Tui and its Cathedral of Santa María
Vigo – one of the economic engines of Galicia
Vilagarcía de Arousa and its beaches
16-year-old boy with a team of skilled archers Yamato-takeru went on a campaign against kumaso. Before that, he proved himself at home: he killed his twin brother for disobedience to the king-father.
Yamato-takeru dealt with two recalcitrant kumaso leaders by resorting to cunning. To one he entered under the guise of a beautiful girl, and when the leader of the kumaso became drunk during the feast, he stabbed him in the heart with a dagger. For appearances, the prince became friends with another, but during the bath he killed him defenseless.
In Hokkaido, Yamato-takeru fought for 10 years with rebellious ebisus. To accomplish the legendary feats, the prince was helped by his aunt, Yamato-hime, the high priestess of the shrine in Ise. She gave her nephew a magic flint and the sword of the hurricane god Susayaoo, which later became known as "Kusanagi" - "Healing Grass" or "Grass Slayer". The legend tells that once the enemies set fire to thickets of tall grass in which Yamato-takeru was hiding. The fire was getting closer, then the prince began to cut the burning grass with his sword and in the end escaped death.
Yamato-takeru died of his wounds in a foreign land. Before his death, he wrote to the king: “I am lying among the fragrant fields, but I do not care about life. I only regret that I cannot appear before you...” These words sound the courage and devotion of a warrior, which Yamato-takeru left as a legacy to his descendants.
Casalarreina and its monastery of Our Lady of Mercy
Haro – capital of La Rioja wines
Monastery of Nuestra Señora de Valvanera
Monasteries of San Millán de Suso and San Millán de Yuso – UNESCO sites
Monastery of Santa María de San Salvador de Cañas – Cistercian abbey
Santo Domingo de la Calzada and its Cathedral
Villoslada de Cameros and its attractions
Viniegra de Abajo and its attractions
Viniegra de Arriba and its attractions
Vivanco Museum of Wine Culture – world best museum devoted to wines by UNESCO
Abbey of Santa María la Real de la Oliva
Arazuri castle dates back to the 15th century
Artajona and its walled enclosure
Castle of Xavier and art collection
Wars played an important role in strengthening the power of the reigning Yamato family. During campaigns, the king or his closest relatives became the head of the militia. The lion's share of the captured booty went to the king and his relatives, to the temples, where, again, people from the royal house served as priests. Prisoners of war cultivated the royal lands or were included in the category of artisans, many of whom worked for the royal family.
As a result of the aggressive campaigns of Yamato, the elders of the defeated foreigners became subordinate to the rulers of Yamato, their tributaries. To strengthen their power in the conquered lands, the Yamato kings appointed their relatives there as rulers, who proved themselves to be brave or capable people.
Estella-Lizarra and its attractions
Etxalar has a National Tourism Award for beautification of the town
With the expansion of the territory subject to the kings of Yamato, and the increase in the population on it, it is already difficult for them to single-handedly cope with the affairs of government. Under sovereign Seimu (131-190), the post of "omi" appeared for the first time - the closest assistant to the king in managing Yamato, and governors and district chiefs were appointed in the region.
The successor of King Seimu, the handsome giant Tuai did not have a warlike spirit. One day, his wife, Queen Jingu, saw in a dream the lands lying southwest of Yamato that could be conquered. It was Korea. Jingu told her dream to the king, ending the story with the words: “There is an abundance of various treasures that beckon the eye, from gold to silver. I will now give this land to you." Tuay continued to play the flute instead of answering. Still, his peace was disturbed. The recalcitrant kumaso rose again. They defeated Tuai's troops, mortally wounding him himself. Queen Jingu severely avenged them for the death of her husband, but she did not succeed in subduing them completely. They, like the ebisu, fought for freedom over the next few centuries.
After burying her husband and pacifying the rebels, Queen Jingu undertook a campaign against the Korean state of Silla, a longtime ally of the Kumaso. She personally led a trip to the overseas region. The military expedition required a lot of money and labor to build ships, prepare equipment, many people were forcibly taken to war. The discontent of the population took advantage of the princes Kago-saka and Oshikuma. In Jingu's absence, they led the rebellion. However, people loyal to Jingu, led by adviser Takenouchi no Sukune, managed to suppress him in time.
The heir of Jingu, Ojin, who ruled the country from 270 to 310, dreamed of sea voyages and obliged the inhabitants of the coastal region of Izu to build ships for him free of charge, as a tribute. At that time, their bodies were made by gouging out of tree trunks.
Odzin had a whole fleet - 500 ships - carano. So much before him was not a single king of Yamato. The inhabitants of Korea unwittingly turned out to be involved in shipbuilding in Yamato. Part of Ojin's ships burned down near the houses where the ambassadors of the Korean kingdom of Silla were stationed. They were accused of arson. Then the ruler of Silla sent skilful shipbuilders to Yamato. There they later founded a hereditary union of shipbuilders.
Monastery of Leyre – a Benedictine monastery
Monastery of Santa Maria de Irache and its winery
Pamplona – the capital of Navarre
Puente la Reina and its Roman bridge
Under Ojin, a fishing union of fishermen is created. Before that, they were separated. Taking advantage of this, the royal court took away fish from them. Over time, realizing their strength, the fishermen refused to follow the orders of the royal authorities. After lengthy negotiations, the royal decree allowed the creation of a fishermen's union, which represented their interests.
With the development of various crafts in the country, special groups of artisans appeared who served the royal court and the nobility. So, at the end of the 3rd century 10 artels of artisans were allocated to one of the princes: weavers of brocade, manufacturers of shields, swords, bows, arrows, carved stones, etc.
Roncal – Erronkari and its Church of San Esteban
Roncesvalles and the legend for the death of Roland
Ujué and its church-fortress of Santa Maria
For the development of crafts, the Yamato kings encouraged the resettlement of skilled craftsmen from abroad to their country. Under Ojin, several embassies were sent to other countries for this purpose. By order of the king, Achi no oma, who arrived from there, went to China, to the kingdom of Wu, with his son. They were to bring skilful weavers and tailors to Yamato. Later, potters, saddlers, and embroiderers arrived from the Korean kingdom of Paekche.
The city of Murcia and its attractions
Mula and its Tamborada festival
Cehegín – a Historic-Artistic Site
Caravaca de la Cruz and its heritage
Moratalla has the largest set of Mediterranean rock art in the Region of Murcia
Lorca – the city of 100 shields
Castle Palace of the Viscount of Ros and its history
The castle of Santa Catalina del Monte
Mar Menor – a coastal saltwater lagoon
After Ojin's death, there was a struggle for power for almost three years. The eldest son of the king was killed, the youngest committed suicide. The throne went to the middle one - Nintoku (313-399). What the new king saw around him amazed him: wars, civil strife of the nobility turned into troubles and poverty for the population of the country. The Japanese chronicles brought to us the words of Nintoku: “We climbed a high tower and looked around, but no smoke rose from the ground anywhere. From this we concluded that the people are poor and no one cooks rice in their houses.” After that, Nintoku wrote off the arrears, refused to receive land tax for three years. He himself began to walk in old clothes and worn shoes. In his palace, it is said in a laudatory ode in honor of the king, in the rain they moved from one room to another, as the roof leaked.
The economic condition of the country was not indifferent to the king.
Natural conditions suitable for the cultivation of cereals, and the sea rich in fish, determined the main occupations of the inhabitants of the Yamato country - agriculture and fishing. According to legend, farming was not an easy task. There was little suitable land for cultivation. The development of mountainous areas required great effort. With the spread of iron tools, the soil began to be worked with picks, hoes, and shovels. The plow with bovine traction came into use. The cultivation of rice, which became a favorite food of the Yamato population, required the creation of irrigated fields, canals, dams, reservoirs - extensive hydraulic engineering work.
The name of King Yuryaku (457-479) is associated with special concerns about the development of sericulture. According to legend, he allegedly gathered people of the Khata clan who settled in different places, who knew how to get silk threads, and settled them together, ordering them to engage in sericulture and weave silk fabrics. In 472, decrees were issued on the cultivation of mulberry wherever it can grow. And at the same time, it was ordered to resettle the people of the Khata clan again in different places so that they could teach more peasants how to silk weave.
During the years of the reign of the kings Nintoku and Yuryaku, the economy of the country became stronger, the people began to live better. The kings received such great power that the most powerful heads of clans could not interfere with their rule. However, discord gradually began in the royal family. They inspired Matori, a member of the Heguri family, to seize the throne from the ten-year-old king Buretsu (499-506). But the military nobility opposed Matori, and the Heguri clan was exterminated.
In the VI century. the importance of royal power is falling, once again influential elders of the clans are in charge. Lawlessness and strife reign in Yamato. They came to an end after the decisive battles of the Mononobe and Soga houses. The Mononobe warriors were led by the ancestor Moriya, the Soga warriors were led by the sixteen-year-old prince Shotoku-taishi. In the decisive battle, Morya was killed, many of his relatives and supporters were killed, and the survivors were enslaved. Their property went to the treasury.
According to legend, during the battle, Shotoku-taishi's head was decorated with a helmet depicting four kings - guardians of the world who protect the world and people from evil forces. With their images, as well as with other images of Buddhist gods and protectors, the Japanese first met in 552, when the king of the Korean state Paekche sent a statue of Buddha cast in gold to Yamato. He was accompanied by Buddhist monks. The royal court was initially introduced to the new religion. Shotoku-taishi was an adherent of Buddhism and by all means contributed to its spread in the country, hoping with his help to become the arbiter of the destinies of the people.
Requena has one of the largest areas of vineyards in Spain
In 604, he published the Law of 17 Articles. It outlined the fundamentals of government. For example, article 3 said: “When you receive a sovereign’s command, be sure to follow it ... If you don’t follow it, destroy yourself”; in article 4: “All dignitaries and officials, consider the law to be the most important ... If there is no law above, there is no order below. If there is no law below, crimes will certainly appear”; “The duty of an official is to fairly, without succumbing to the temptation of gluttony and greed, to consider complaints submitted to him” - Article 5; “Dignitaries and officials! Arrive early and leave late! There is a lot to do” – article 8.
At the turn of the middle of the VII century. for the country of Yamato, the period of antiquity ends, and it enters a new era in its development. In place of "Yamato" comes "Nippon" - "Japan" - "Land of the Rising Sun".
The Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba
Military affairs as one of the forms of human activity arose simultaneously with the beginnings of society. Surrounded by a hostile world, primitive people defended their right to exist in the fight not only with wildlife. The contacts of the tribes with the same wary and distrustful neighbors as themselves turned into bloody clashes. The desire to win forced to improve weapons, means of protection, resort to tactical tricks. The rock paintings preserved in the caves testify to the fact that in the Middle Stone Age there was already an idea of the need to divide forces into detachments, which, under the leadership of commanders, coordinated independent tasks in battle: they attacked in the forehead, came from the flanks or from the rear.
For a very long time, from the 9th millennium BC, fortification monuments have been preserved in Palestine - the oldest walls and the tower of Jericho. Weapons and means of protection dating back to the 4th millennium BC were also found there: spearheads and dagger blades, striking parts of maces, battle axes, wide and thick helmet crowns and even shells made of copper ribbons sewn between two layers of skin .
And in the Nile Valley at the end of the 4th millennium BC. the first state formations were formed, later called by the Greeks "nomes", whose warriors fought in shells and covered themselves with shields made of desert lynx skins dried to the hardness of wood. Over time, they abandoned shells, and shields began to be made from cowhides stretched over a frame. The head of each warrior was protected by a helmet-wig made of wool and hair. Their weapons were bows, arrows, spears, darts, various maces, throwing batons, boomerangs, original axes - a metal segment or rectangle inserted into a hole in the shaft and tied to it with ropes or straps.
The Egyptians entered the battle in order, lining up in ranks and stepping in step. A banner was carried in front of the detachment - a pole decorated with ostrich feathers and long fluttering ribbons with a crossbar at the top, where the figure of a local deity was placed in the form of an animal.
The Church of the Archangel Michael
The battle was started by archers. Armed with longbows made from a single piece of wood, they showered their enemies with clouds of long arrows. Warriors with daggers completed the battle, pinning the defeated enemies. The battle turned into a terrible] massacre: no prisoners were taken.
In the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates, where ancient city-states arose, the military forces at that time consisted of free community members. Whether they will be led by elected military leaders - lugali. Armament of the Mesopotamian warriors at the turn of the 4th-3rd millennium BC consisted of daggers with bronze or copper blades and bows glued together from six layers of wood and, probably, horn. Main: the chariot became a means of combat. It was a body with side and front sidewalls, mounted on one or two axles, with two or four solid wheels carved from a single piece of wood or knocked down from a plank. In front, a long curved drawbar with a crossbar-yoke was attached to the bottom.
They harnessed to the chariots half-assaults-half-horses of onagers, distinguished by their height, strength, and swiftness! running stamina and stamina. To prevent them from sitting down, they put a halter clenching their jaws on their faces. Managed them with the help of a rein! tied to a metal ring inserted into the bridge between the animal's nostrils. Next to the driver in the chariot stood a fighter who acted with a long spear, threw darts, and shot from a bow.
The chariot fighters were lugals and their close associates. The core of the army consisted of adults, her leading husbands, heads of families. They united in a phalanx - a formation of several ranks of foot soldiers, covered with shields and advancing: together, shoulder to shoulder. Their blow was irresistible. However, the phalanx itself, clumsy and vulnerable! from the flanks, they were covered by special, more maneuverable detachments, formed from young men, usually already married. The younger members of the community formed the light flying units.
What happened on the battlefield? At first, all the warriors armed with slings, who stood on the flank behind the main forces, brought down on the enemy a hail of stones or sling balls made of clay. Then, in clouds of dust, rattling their wheels, the forester nobility rushed forward, whose heads were protected by metal and bronze helmets, slightly pointed upwards with a forged knot on the back of the head, imitating our real hairstyle. Over the shoulder of every warrior would. thrown over a battle scarf, decorated with either strands of wool or bronze plaques. If the enemies did not scatter at the sight of this frightening splendor, a phalanx advanced on them with a quick and measured step - a wall of huge shields covered with thick cowhide with large bronze plaques. The shields were so heavy that they were carried by special shield bearers who made up the first row. Behind them came spearmen in several ranks, their thick bristles of bronze stingers sticking out from behind their shields. The warriors were protected by rounded, slightly pointed metal helmets, shells made of thick leather or quilted felt in the form of two wide strips hanging on the shoulders and attached to a wide belt, as well as long skirts made of sheepskins.
The fighters covering the edges of the phalanx had the same protective equipment, and were armed with a spear and an ax. They crushed the enemy. And throwing stones, and the roar of chariots, and the onslaught of the phalanx were aimed primarily at breaking the line and undermining the morale of the enemy. And lightly armed slingers had to grab prisoners and finish off the wounded, not fit for ransom or forced labor.
Such a combat system lasted, however, only about 300 years. In the last quarter of the III millennium BC. it was reformed by the famous Akkadian king Sargon and thanks to this he was able to win impressive victories, uniting Mesopotamia under his rule. He replaced the phalanx with archers. Obviously, the influence of the intensified West-Semitic pastoral tribes, which brought, more precisely, returned to Mesopotamia, the massive use of a powerful compound bow, had an effect. They themselves served as mercenaries in the squads of local rulers.
The nature of the battle now changed: after a powerful shelling with bows and slings, an attack of chariots followed. Then spear-bearing axes joined the battle. Moreover, during the battle, the archers constantly interacted, as more mobile and numerous, with all detachments of the troops and could concentrate the shelling on the desired area of the battle. In addition, the archers themselves were protected by metal or quilted helmets and shells.
By the beginning of the II millennium BC. Western Semitic nomads, skillful and brave fighters, are more and more willingly invited to military service by the rulers of various regions of Mesopotamia, western Syria, and the Eastern Mediterranean. The nomads perfectly mastered the local types of weapons and, using the achievements in the weapons business, created their own weapons complex. They also worked on improving the chariots.
A powerful military-administrative despotism developed in Egypt by the 2nd millennium BC. The whole country was organized in a military way. The pharaohs maintained a huge army. It did not so much protect the borders of Egypt as it was intended to capture and colonize new lands. The army consisted of the personal guard of the pharaoh, detachments of governors of the regions, reserve, training and internal units. In addition to the Egyptians, it began to include detachments of Negroes hired or brought from the occupied territories - in order to keep the local population in obedience. The military successes of Egypt were achieved, apparently, due to the large number, discipline and combat skills of the troops.
The aggressive strategy of Egypt was distinguished by the creation of a reliable system of fortifications in the border areas. On the borders with Nubia in the south and the Sinai desert in the north, giant fortresses arose, alternating with smaller fortifications. Even individual people could not cross the border unnoticed. Frontier troops were based in and around the fortresses. From them, detachments of explorers were formed, whose task included reconnaissance, trade and exchange, diplomatic and military operations. If necessary, reinforcements were brought from the fortresses. The zone of influence of Egypt expanded, providing the flow of gold, elephant tusks, ostrich feathers, leopard and giraffe skins, ebony, copper, vases, wine, dates, livestock, fair-skinned Asian warriors and slaves from the north, black warriors and slaves from the south.
At the end of the second millennium BC. Egypt broke up into several states that fought fiercely among themselves. The northern nomes, like the Mesopotamian states, began to settle West-Semitic shepherd clans in the Nile Delta and include their warriors in their troops, moreover, as independent detachments.
The first to centuries of the II millennium BC. were marked by innovations in military affairs. In Syria, chariots appeared with a reduced and lightweight body and wheels, consisting of a rim and two crossed boards, later replaced by spokes. Another innovation was the widespread use of horses on the battlefields, previously used only to produce hybrids with donkeys - mules. The horses were not so hardy, but they had a good step, high growth, complaisant disposition and, most importantly, they were easy to train.
In the XVIII century. BC. the king of Babylon, Hammurabi (see article "Babylon") united Mesopotamia and defeated the coalition of shepherd tribes. The masses of the defeated in search of shelter poured west, passed the fertile, but cramped valleys of the Eastern Mediterranean and reached the Nile Delta. Then militant nomads from Canaan moved there, but not as peaceful petitioners... On the other side of the border they were met by people close in language and culture. However, the warlike, skillful, brave in battle shepherds were few in number before the army of Egypt, which had united by that time. The outcome of this clash was to be decided by the weapon.
Asian warriors fought with large, sickle-like bronze cleavers, heavy axes of terrible piercing power, powerful bows with heavy arrows, defended themselves with quilted shells and helmets, rectangular shields made of leather and twigs. The victory for the nomadic warriors was ensured by light gigs harnessed by two or four horses; archers (or spearmen, axe-bearers, swordsmen) rose on them, chained from knees to lips in armor made of bronze plates. The sight of horses, chariots, warriors, made, it seemed, of blinding metal, shining with the sun, made a stunning impression on the Egyptian warriors. The Hyksos - as the Egyptians called the conquerors - took control of the northern part of the country for almost two centuries (see the article "Ancient Egypt").
The Egyptians did not waste time during these centuries. They acquired horses and chariots. And although the Hyksos did not borrow protective weapons, the chariot business was staged on an Egyptian scale: instead of single crews, they had thousands of chariots. And now the transformed army smashes the Hyksos, drives them out of the country and, on the shoulders of a defeated enemy, breaks into Canaan, the neighboring regions of the Eastern Mediterranean.
Over time, the onslaught of the Egyptians began to meet a growing rebuff. The small states of Syria and Palestine began to unite in coalitions, and the weapons of local soldiers surpassed the Egyptian ones: metal and leather, metal-reinforced shells and helmets spread and improved. The protective blankets of horses were sheathed with metal, the bodies of chariots were upholstered. But all this did not help much to withstand the disciplined, trained and huge Egyptian army, led by very capable and brave pharaoh commanders.
However, a third force appeared in the region - the mighty Hittite state. Little is known about the military affairs of the Hittites: they had foot and chariot troops, siege equipment and powerful fortresses, beautiful bronze spearheads, daggers and axes, bows with arrows, bronze belts and shells borrowed from metal plates in Canaan, combed bronze helmets of Syrian origin. The power of the Hittite kings was not as heavy as the power of the pharaohs, and local rulers willingly became their supporters.
In the XIII century. BC. at the Syrian city of Kadet, a decisive battle took place between the army of Pharaoh Ramesses II and the troops of the Hittite king (see the article “The Hittite Kingdom”). The Egyptian army marched in three large detachments. The distance between them was a day's journey. Their opponent, having concentrated his forces near Kadesh, sent scouts, from whom the pharaoh learned that the enemies were still far away. The Egyptians did not have time to prepare, and the chariots of the allies of the Hittites had already fallen on them. Only the unparalleled courage of the pharaoh, who gathered his soldiers and organized resistance, and the indiscipline of the Syrians, who rushed to rob the Egyptian camp, allowed the detachment of Ramesses II to hold out until the rest of the forces approached. The heroism of the pharaoh did not change, however, the military-political outcome of the campaign: the Hittites ousted the Egyptians from Syria and Palestine.
Another center of military development was located far to the east of Egypt, the Mediterranean and Mesopotamia.
In the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. cattle breeders of the Great Eurasian steppe bring to the borders of the Chinese plain a great Middle Eastern invention - a horse fighting cart, as well as bronze helmets. The northern Chinese state of Shang had a powerful army that was constantly at war with its “barbarian” neighbors, who were captured only to be put to a painful death during sacrifices to the glory of one or another deity. The weapons of the Shan people were flat bronze picks on a long shaft, bronze axes, spears with massive tips, large combat knives, powerful compound bows. They were covered with armor-cuirasses made of thick, hard patent leather and rectangular shields made of wood or woven from rods and covered with patent leather. Their steppe opponents used picks and axes, daggers and sometimes long knives.
Chariots at first gave the steppes undeniable advantages. But when the Chinese borrowed from them and mastered the novelty, what happened in Egypt was repeated: a powerful production base and an abundance of skilled workers made it possible to create a chariot army. In the late Shan period (13th-11th centuries BC), Chinese warriors fought protected by bronze helmets and masks-masks, leather armor and shields covered with bronze disks. But the wonderful weapons did not save the cruel kings from being defeated by their neighbors - the Zhou tribe.
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