Rating - ranking, prioritization, rating, order, classification. Rating means the determination of an evaluation parameter or group of parameters according to a specific evaluation algorithm, according to a given ranking scale. In fact, a rating is a measure of the popularity of something. Rating is determined by interviewing a large target group, or a limited group of experts.
Rating in marketing is used for the initial classification of valuation objects (company weight, popularity rating, solvency rating).
Rating in sales - a cumulative indicator of the popularity of a product, service expressed in an estimate not only of the volume of purchases of a given product over a period, but also in the number of requests for a given product, inventory turnover, and profitability for transactions with this product. To determine the popularity rating, the number of downloads of trial versions, product page lengths in the catalog, and so on can be estimated.
Company rating (counterparty rating) - the estimated ranking of buyer companies (suppliers) by a group of parameters: solvency, revenue, profitability of transactions, depending on the importance and importance of which the expert determines the position of the company in the rating.
Advertising rating (Raiting)%, thousand people - quantitative assessment of the audience. The rating is calculated as the percentage of the audience that viewed (listened) the advertising message at a given time to the entire audience that had the opportunity to see (hear) the message. Rating can be called part of the target audience in contact with a specific advertising medium and (or) message.
The TVR rating is one of the rating indicators in media planning, expressed as a percentage of the ratio of the audience of the estimated time interval to the total population. The rating is used in the analysis of television broadcasting, promising grids for forecasting long time intervals: morning broadcasting, daytime broadcasting, pre-prime, prime, and night broadcasting.
Overall rating GRP (Gross Rating Points) - the total rating of all advertising media in which contextual advertising is placed, designed for one target audience. This indicator allows you to evaluate the advertising prospects of the planned grid broadcast television channel.
Predicted rating GRP - the sum of the ratings of all the spots that make up this advertising campaign. The total indicators make it possible to estimate the cost of an advertising campaign carried out on a television channel. The forecast rating plays a significant role in planning the effectiveness of advertising on television, the entire advertising campaign. Advertising agencies use the predicted rating indicators to sell the advertising opportunities of television, media planning. The forecast GRP rating, as a rule, is always overestimated by media sellers, and in practice the rating is lower than expected, and only for pilot TV projects with highly growing popularity the expected GRP can be lower than the actual one.
The targeted (target) total TRP rating (Target rating points) is the same as the GRP rating, but not only for the entire audience, but for the target group. Reach (in percent) indicates how much of the audience will be able to see this advertising message. Frequency shows the average number of times this audience is reached.
Solving the problem in a logical way:
So, the Battle of the Ice is a fairly well-known event. What if you are not sure of its date? Everything is simple, we solve the problem logically. We understand that it happened quite early, which means that options 3, 4, 5 are clearly not suitable. Then you need to remember that Alexander Nevsky defeated the crusaders on the ice of Lake Peipus. The Russian principalities faced the aggression of the Mongols and the Crusaders in the XIII century. Knowing this fact, we understand that the year 1380 does not suit us, because. firstly, this is an event of the XIV century, and secondly, the date of a well-known event - the Battle of Kulikovo. Therefore, the desired date is 1242.
The next event is the election of Mikhail Romanov to the throne. Everyone is well aware that it was this event that ended the era of the Time of Troubles in Russia at the turn of the 16th-17th centuries, which means that options 4 and 5 are not suitable. We stop at 1613.
The abolition of serfdom in Russia is also a rather significant event that you need to know. In ignorance, choosing from options 4 and 5, we argue as follows: the second half of the 18th century, especially the reign of Catherine the Great, called the "golden age of the nobility", is the era of expanding the privileges of the nobles, tightening serf policy, so option 4 will not work. Option 5 remains. We check: the tsar-liberator Alexander II carried out the peasant reform after the severe defeat of Russia in the Crimean War (1853-1856), this is one of the great bourgeois reforms of 60-70. 19th century So, the choice was made correctly.
2. Arrange historical events in chronological order.
Write down the numbers that indicate historical events in the correct sequence in the table.
1) the election of Mikhail Romanov to the kingdom
2) election to the kingdom of Boris Godunov
3) the formation of the Second Zemstvo militia
4) overthrow of False Dmitry I
Answer: 2431. Question difficulty level: 2 (advanced). The cost of the task: 1 point.
When performing tasks with a short answer, associative links play an important role. The more facts, names, phenomena, processes are involved in such connections, the more effective the fulfillment of the tasks of the OGE will be.
To consolidate and repeat the studied material, effective methods are: drawing up tables, diagrams that present events and dates in the history of Russia; performance of relevant tasks in workbooks (correlation of events, processes, phenomena, events and dates, filling in gaps in the text). For example:
Tasks related to establishing the dates of events and their sequence traditionally cause difficulties. The best results in preparing for the implementation of this group of tasks are given by systematic work on compiling
•tapes of family life,
•“rivers of history”,
• tapes of time,
•chronological complex (chronological and synchronistic tables),
• visual-figurative designation of time,
solving chronological problems.
When studying military conflicts, it seems useful to compile various information tables. For example, it is advisable to study the history of the Crimean War by systematizing the material in a table.
To increase the effectiveness of the study of armed conflicts, one can refer to the well-established methodology for studying wars according to the scheme: the causes of war, the nature of the war, preparation for war, the balance of forces and plans of the belligerents, the reason for the war and its beginning, the main stages and main battles, the end of the war and the conditions of peace, the causes of a certain result of war, the meaning of war. The use of maps, illustrations, excerpts from films contributes to the assimilation of knowledge. Information is recorded in the form of a chronological table, an example of which is given above. The proposed information tables may be useful for developing the ability to establish correspondence between historical events and statesmen.
2) Tasks for knowledge of concepts, terms
3. Write down the term in question.
Warriors who were recruited into the regular Russian army according to the service introduced by Peter I.
Answer: recruits. Question difficulty level: 1 (basic). Task cost: 1 point
We carefully read the terms of the assignment.
•Determine the era to which the term refers.
• We are looking for essential features (such a quality without which the subject ceases to be itself) of the term in the definition.
• We analyze the essential features, remember the events that are appropriate for a given period of time, define the term.
• We check ourselves again, write down the answer.
It is quite obvious that the era is the first quarter of the 18th century, namely the time of the Northern War (see: “introduced by Peter I”). In the definition of this concept, we single out two essential features: 1) soldiers, 2) carried a duty - regular military service. We recall: in the initial period of the Northern War, Peter I issued a decree on the introduction of recruitment, a new way of recruiting a regular army. We conclude that the term you are looking for is a recruit. We reread the definition, check our answer, write it down without spelling errors.
5. Below is a list of terms. All of them, with the exception of one, belong to the period 1894–1914.
1) Octobrists; 2) cadets; 3) strike; 4) Petrashevites; 5) petition.
Find and write down the ordinal number of the term that "falls out" of the given series.
Answer: 4. Question difficulty level: 1 (basic). Task cost: 1 point
Useful in preparing for the implementation of this group of tasks is terminological work, which involves the semantization (explaining the meaning) of the concept, establishing links with previously known concepts, highlighting the essential features that distinguish this concept from others, mastering the terminology by ear and obligatory writing in a notebook . Important methods of working with concepts are “fourth extra”, “continue the row”, compiling a sentence with a term, compiling a crossword puzzle, searching for terms missing in the text, establishing a hierarchy, distributing terms into groups, etc.
3) Task for systematization of historical information (multiple choice)
4. Which of the listed cities were in the XIII-XIV centuries. administrative centers of Russian lands with a republican form of government? Choose two cities and write down the numbers under which they are indicated in the table.
Answer: 34. Question difficulty level: 1 (basic). Task cost: 2 points
4) Tasks for argumentation
6. Read four sentences. Two of them are theses (positions that need to be argued). The other two contain facts that can serve to substantiate these theses. Select the corresponding fact for each of the theses. Record the numbers of the corresponding proposals in the table.
1) Under Ivan IV, Russia pursued an active foreign policy in an eastern direction.
2) The policy of the oprichnina pursued by Ivan IV was disastrous for the country.
3) Many central districts of Russia were devastated.
4) Russian troops took Kazan.
The number of the proposal containing
thesis 1 fact 1 thesis 2 fact 2
Answer: 1423. Question difficulty level: 1 (basic). Task cost: 1 point
The main task of students in completing this task is to identify the difference between theses and facts, to establish a connection between the thesis and the fact, to understand whether the fact really clearly confirms the proposed position.
Thesis (Greek thesis - position, statement) is the initial position, the truth of which must be proved.
Fact (from lat. factum - done, accomplished) - a real, real-life, non-fictional event, phenomenon, something that actually happened; basis of theoretical generalization, conclusion.
We carefully read the terms of the assignment.
•Determine the theses - provisions that need to be proved.
• We are looking for facts (real events) that substantiate (prove) these theses. From the thesis to the facts, you can ask the question "Why can we say this?", And the facts answer: "Because."
• We check ourselves again, write down the answer.
The first sentence: "Under Ivan IV, Russia pursued an active foreign policy in an eastern direction" is thesis No. 1 that needs to be proved. How did we define it? There are no facts in this sentence, i.e. actual events, this sentence may or may not be true.
Let's prove this thesis. We ask the question: “Why can we say this?”. Answer: "Russian troops took Kazan" will be fact number 1. We check ourselves: 1. Kazan was located east of Russia, in 1552 it was taken and annexed to the Russian state. 2. The sentence “Many central uyezds of Russia were ruined” does not correspond to thesis No. 1 (the central uyezds are located inside the country, and this is the thesis about foreign policy).
The sentence: “The policy of the oprichnina pursued by Ivan IV was disastrous for the country” is thesis No. 2 that needs to be proven. We ask the question: “Why can we say this?”. Answer: “Many central districts of Russia were devastated” will be fact number 2. We check ourselves: 1. The result of the oprichnina policy was an economic crisis - “the ruin of the 70s”, the manifestation of which was the ruin of many districts, especially the central ones, identified by Ivan IV to the oprichnina.
5) Task for the analysis of information presented in the form of a statistical table
7. Using the data of the statistical table, complete the judgments below, correlating their beginnings and completion options.
Investments of various countries in the Russian economy
Year France England Germany
BEGINNINGS OF JUDGMENTS
A) By 1890 prevailing in the economy
B) By the end of the XIX century. foreign investment
into the Russian economy
C) The weakest dynamics at the end
19th century characterized
2) German investments
3) English investments
4) French investments
Write in the table the selected numbers under the corresponding letters.
Answer: A2B1V3. Question difficulty level: 1 (basic). Task cost: 2 points
Working with statistical information - basic level. For its implementation, it is necessary to carefully study the material proposed for analysis and, based on observations and logic, select the correct answers. This assignment does not require additional information.
• Carefully read the condition of the assignment.
•Set the name of the table, in what values the statistical data are presented.
• Carefully study the names of the columns and rows of the table.
We reveal the quantitative values of the indicators of each of the quantities.
•Summarizing the results, we logically establish correspondences between the beginning of the judgment and the variants of its completion.
• After checking the solutions, write down the answer.
We analyze the investments of various countries in the Russian economy in 1880 and 1890 in million rubles. We come to the conclusion that the investments of France, England and Germany in the Russian economy have increased over the past 10 years. By the end of the XIX century. German investments became predominant in the Russian economy (79 million rubles against 66.6 million rubles of French investments and 35.3 million rubles of British investments), and English investments were characterized by weak dynamics (growth by 5.2 million rubles against +35.2 million rubles French investments and +49.2 million rubles of German investments).
Let's move on to matching. The beginning of the judgment “According to this table, by 1890 the Russian economy became dominant” corresponds to the ending of the judgment “German investments”. The beginning of the judgment “According to this table, by the end of the 19th century. foreign investment in the Russian economy” corresponds to the completion option of the judgment “increased”. The beginning of the judgment “According to this table, the weakest dynamics at the end of the 19th century. characterized” corresponds to the completion of the proposition “English investments”. We check the answer and write it down.
6) Tasks for working with a historical map, diagram
Review the diagram and complete tasks 8-10.
8. Indicate the century when the events indicated in the diagram occurred. Write the answer in words.
Answer: fourteenth. Question difficulty level: 1 (basic). Task cost: 1 point
9. Name the military leader, the commander of the army, whose campaign is indicated in the legend of the scheme by the number "5".
Answer: Mom. Question difficulty level: 2 (advanced). Task cost: 1 point
10. Read an excerpt from the historian's work and indicate the number on the diagram indicating the city whose name is omitted in this passage.
“The Moscow prince called on everyone to lay down their heads for the Russian land. The city of _________________ was appointed the place of gathering of Russian troops. On August 25, the Grand Duke of Moscow arrived in this city. He was met on the banks of the Severka River, a tributary of the Moscow River. On the morning of the next day, all governors with troops were ordered to leave the city for the Maiden's Field. A review of Russian troops took place here before the campaign. After the advice of the governor, the Russian regiments left the city on August 26 and went to the upper reaches
Answer: 2. The level of difficulty of the question: 2 (high). Task cost: 1 point
To prepare for tasks 8 and 9 with a map, it is useful to use a proven algorithm:
1. carefully read the task;
2. study all the symbols presented on the map: the names of geographical objects, places of battles, the names of generals and rulers, places of conclusion of peace treaties, directions of campaigns, etc., which can help to find out the events and date them;
3. if there is a map legend, carefully study it, extract information useful for attributing events, dates, locations, do not ignore any useful detail;
4. Analyze and summarize the information received, link it with the knowledge of specific historical facts for the attribution of events, dates, and places of action.