пятница, 30 ноября 2018 г.

Серна – символ Пиренеев: разновидности, повадки и особенности

Серна – изящное грациозное животное, которое является символом Пиренеев
В природе различают несколько видов серн, которые очень похожи между собой. Поэтому все они называются рупикарпа (rupicapra) или в переводе с латинского “каменная коза” (“chèvre des rochers”). Это род серны азиатского происхождения. Появилась она от 250 000 до 400 000 лет назад. Однако в зависимости от среды обитания серны имеют отличия в строении, цвете, анатомии и поведении. Во Франции живут три вида рупикарпы:  альпийская серна (rupicapra rupicapra), картузианская серна (rupicapra cartusiana) и пиренейская серна (rupicapra pyrenaïca).
Серна – млекопитающее, парнокопытное, семейство капринов (лат. сaprinae).
Серны – самые маленькие представители капринов. Их отличительная особенность – два крючковатых рога, которые не позволяют их путать с другими животными.
И самки, и самцы сохраняют эти рога в течение всего периода существования.
Серны линяют два раза в год: осенью (август-сентябрь) и весной (апрель-май).
Продолжительность жизни серны – около 25 лет, что обычно не свойственно для животных такого небольшого размера.
Альпийская серна:
Высота в холке взрослой особи – от 75 до 80 см.  От морды до хвоста животное может достигать 135 см. Вес самца – от 35 до 50 кг, самки – от 25 до 38 кг. Цвет шерсти и зимой, и летом почти одинаковый: бежево-серый или желтовато-серый с коричневыми или буровато-серыми вкраплениями.
Пиренейская серна:
Высота в холке взрослой особи – от 70 до 75 см. От морды до хвоста животное может достигать 110 см. Вес самца – от 25 до 40 кг, самки – от 20 кг до 32 кг. Цвет шерсти летом – красновато-бежевый или цвет охры, окрас равномерный. Цвет шерсти зимой намного ярче, чем летом. Бока, нижние бедра и конечности темно-коричневые, шея, задняя часть и верхние бедра серовато-бежевые. Хвост и спина – черные, живот – белый. На шее также различается характерная черная полоска, которая напоминает шарф.
Картузианская серна:
Более крупные особи с рогами большого диаметра. Цвет шерсти зимой – чёрный, на голове более светлые пятна.
Старение серны сопровождается уменьшением её размера. Это происходит уже с четвёртого года жизни животного. Через десять лет в окраске шерсти появляется больше серого (седого) цвета. Летняя шерсть постепенно становится светло-серой, а зимняя – темно-серой или серовато-коричневой. Полосы исчезают.

четверг, 29 ноября 2018 г.

Languedoc and Occitania: their history and major tourist attractions

Languedoc and Occitania: their history and major tourist attractions
Languedoc (French version – Languedoc, Occitan version – Lengadòc) is the so-called “historical” region in the south of France. The population of this region traditionally did not speak French, but Occitan. Languedoc is part of Occitania, the center of which, in turn, is the city of Toulouse. The population of Languedoc currently stands at 3.6 million.
The name Languedoc began to be used from the XIII century when, in 1271, the county of Toulouse fell under the French crown’s possession.
Until 1790, Languedoc had the official status of a province. Currently there are two regions on its territory – Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées (departments Aude, Tarn, Herault, Gard, Ardèche, Lozère, Haute-Garonne, Tarn and Garonne, Haute-Loire) . Languedoc occupies an area of about 42.7 thousand square meters, however, there are disagreements regarding the exact borders of the former province.
Today, Languedoc is one of the centers of tourism. It attracts tourists for its mountain peaks, green hills, ancient castles, vineyards and blue lagoons. About 800 years ago, this area was called the land of the Cathars, against which the Vatican declared a crusade. After all, the religious movement of the Cathars was the only opponent of the Catholic Church in Europe at that time.
The history of Languedoc and Occitania
The peculiarities of Languedoc include the fact that its inhabitants managed to preserve their language. In 1539, French became the official language in France. As a result, in all regions of the kingdom, local dialects began to die off. Only the people of Languedoc were able to save their language. Nowadays, about 8 million people speak Occitan. Well, tourists may notice that in Toulouse street names are written in French and Occitan. Therefore, Languedoc is often called the “other” France. After all, the locals consider themselves to be Languedoc, not French.
In these regions, a fairly powerful county of Toulouse existed in the past, which controlled all trade routes in the south of France. The highest flowering of the county fell on the XII century. Interestingly, the inhabitants of the county enjoyed great freedom. In addition, there were many free cities. The capital of the county was a city of Toulouse.
The locals quickly accepted the Cathar religion, which did not frighten them with prospects of going to hell. In addition, the Cathars did not recognize indulgences. They also treated people for free. Therefore, against the background of the heavily wealthy Catholic priests, they looked righteous.
The massive transition of locals to the Cathar religion led to the fact that in 1209 a crusade against Toulouse county was declared. It should be noted that the county repelled the attacks of the Crusaders for as long as 20 years. But in 1229, France seized part of the lands of the county. And in 1271 all the lands of the county were annexed to France. As a result, the county became the French province of Languedoc.
Former Occitania has an original intellectual climate, due to the proximity of Arabic Spain and the movement of the Cathars (Albigensians). It was here that troubadours were born and real knights lived. The Cathars (they are Albigensians) appeared at the beginning of the XI century. They believed that the materialism that conquered the Catholic Church should not flourish. They preached abstinence and asceticism, and were the forerunners of Protestantism. Then, in the XVI-XVII centuries, the Huguenots appeared not somewhere, but again here, in the kingdom of Navarre. In both cases, the heresies enjoyed the support of local authorities, and so Paris and the Vatican reacted harshly.
At the beginning of the XIII century, the Albigensians declared a crusade, conducted with all possible cruelty. Of course, it was not their ideology that was the cause, but the desire to profit from the wealth of the southern lands. The south was well fed, the yard prosperous, and the Albigensians were just an excuse as was the case for King Philip II. Pope Innocent III tried to negotiate with the Cathars, and was sent there as the main negotiator of those times – the Spaniard Guzman. But he could not do anything as Toulouse just laughed at him. Earl Raymond refused to take any measures against the Cathars, as he himself was almost a catarrh. Languedoc just did not want to talk to the Vatican. In 1208, the papal legate was killed in Toulouse, and this caused a crusade.
During the heyday of the county, almost all French musicians and poets lived here. After all, the French kingdom in those years experienced severe economic difficulties. Therefore, in the XII century, Toulouse became the intellectual and creative center of Europe. It regularly held poetry tournaments.
The army of Simon de Montfort passed through Occitania with fire and sword. The war lasted for more than thirty years, and the Cathars eventually fell. An indicative moment is that after the defeat of the Cathars in the middle of the 13th century, the surviving heretics moved into the Templar Order, which, in turn, was also defeated by the French king at the beginning of the 14th century. Isolated communities of the Cathars continued to exist for almost 100 years, but they lost their influence. The last known Qatar to the world was burned in 1321. The Huguenot movement also relied on the south.
In the XVI-XVIII centuries, many communes lived here independently and following their own laws. But they failed to resist the power of the absolutism of Louis XIV. This was the second global subordination of the south to the north and the final formation of a united France. Occitania remained only in the legends. Now Occitania under the name of the region of the South – the Pyrenees and Languedoc-Roussillon – is developing quite dynamically, relying on high-tech production. In many of its corners, however, typical medieval coziness and ecological cleanliness have been preserved.
Tourism in the Languedoc and what to see
This is a region of intellectual and rather individual tourism. It is recommended for people who love rustic tranquility, visiting castles and walking in the mountains.

Montesquieu Castle

Montesquiu (cat. Montesquiu) is a municipality in Osona, in Catalonia, Spain. It is located on the banks of the river Ter in the north of the region. The municipality is located on the main route (C17-N260) between Barcelona and Puigcerda.
The main tourist attraction of the municipality is the 13th century Montesquieu castle. It is open to the public, and in the summer many cultural events are held there.
Montesquieu Castle first appeared in documents dating back to 1285, when it was part of a defensive triangle that included the medieval castles of Besor and Saderra.
The transformation from the defensive complex to the Montesquieu castle took place in the 14th century when the regional governor moved here from Besora.
Over the next few centuries, the castle underwent several structural changes. Its owners have expanded the living space. They also added a small chapel set aside for Saint Barbara.
The Provincial Council of Barcelona acquired the castle in 1976.
Today the castle is the central element of the park that bears its name. In the park around the castle are two pedestrian routes: three and eight-kilometers long.
Montesquieu Castle is an amazing and beautiful place. It creates an impression of solitude, retreat, and sometimes loneliness.
The gothic staircase, due to the glass ceilings above and large windows, is the brightest place in the castle. The penetrating rays of the sun add warmth and comfort to the interior of this seemingly harsh stone structure. Darkness cannot rule here until the sun shines.


Cardona (cat. Cardona) is a city and municipality in Spain, included in the province of Barcelona as part of the autonomous community of Catalonia. The municipality is part of the Bajes district. It covers an area of 66.70 km². It had a population of 5182 people in 2010.
Cardona is located in the valley of Salina. Salina Valley (La Vall Salina) is a place where natural salt layers have formed over several million years. The mountain range has the shape of an elongated ellipse. The massif borders the Cardener River in the east, the Tresserres mountain range (Tresserres) in the south, Gran Bofia (la Bòfia Gran) in the west and the Sierra (the city itself and Cardona Castle) in the north. In total, the valley area encompasses 100 hectares. The whole territory is included in the State Plan of Natural Interests of Catalonia (el Pla d’Espais d’Interès Natural de Catalunya).
Mining has long been a crucial part of the location of the city and the castle of Cardona. The exploitation of salt deposits and the establishment of the viscountcy Osona (vescomtal d’Osona) in the castle led to the fact that Cardona Castle and the city created a powerful jurisdiction in the Cardenar River region between the 12th and 14th centuries. By the 15th century, the power of Cardona extended over a vast territory about 60 km long and about 50 km wide. Read more about the history of the region here.
Tourism and attractions in Cardona
Today Cardona with a population of 5,000 is one of the tourist centers of Catalonia. Every year more than half a million tourists visit the city, mainly from Spain and France.
Among the main attractions is the Castle of Cardona (El Castell i la Colo • legiata de Sant Vicenç).
Since ancient times, man has sought places on high ground to build fortresses that would allow him to control a territory. In Cardona, the geographical location of the castle corresponds to the need to protect access to the salt deposit and control over the valley of the Cardener River.
Built on top of a mountain to control the land around the Cardener River Basin, Cardona Castle was from the 11th to the 15th century the main residence of the Lords of Cardona. The castle complex is divided in half between the majestic pavilions and the canonical Romanesque chapel of Sant Vicenç. The architectural complex includes the Tower of Minion (Torre de la Minyona), the Ducal Palace (Pati Ducal), and numerous defensive bastions.
Cardona Castle is an excellent example of military fortification, which shows the evolution of military art from the Middle Ages to the modern era. The castle was home to one of the country’s most important noble families, and protecting the exploitation of salt mines meant that its fortification was impregnable. The power of the castle as a military fortification is proved by the fact that the castle was taken only once during the war for the succession of the Spanish king, Felipe 5 (1711-1714).
The chapel of Sant Vicenç is original, dating from the 11th century, and was consecrated between about 1029 and 1040. This is a magnificent example of Romanesque architecture which has a three-nave basilica plan. In the chapel there are also several tombs and pantheons belonging, in particular, to Duke Ferran I and Count Joan Ramon Folt I.
Currently, the castle is a four-star hotel, restaurant and cafe with a great view over the valley.
The castle is open to the public; however, guided tours are possible only on Saturdays and Sundays (tel. 93 869 24 75).
Among the museums of Cardona is the medieval center (Center Cardona Medieval) – another attraction of the city. Located on the Plaza de la Fira (plaça de la Fira), opposite the Cardona Town Hall, this center helps to highlight the city’s history and cultural heritage. The permanent exhibition with extensive graphic and audiovisual accompaniment explains the emergence and evolution of the city, and the construction of the fortress of Cardona, which has defended the city for over five hundred years.
A virtual tour offers a visit through the most significant historical sites, including visiting the parish church of San Miquel with its magnificent Gothic nave. The Church of Sant Miquel is an example of Catalan Gothic architecture. The church was consecrated in 1397. Inside the temple there are two side altars and crypts of holy martyrs.

History of Spain: Cardona – one of the main strongholds of independence of Catalonia

History of Spain: Cardona – one of the main strongholds of independence of Catalonia
For centuries, Cardona played a leading social and political role that left a legacy of monumentality and grandeur in general, which is especially valuable and attractive to current residents of the city and its tourists.
The first documented mention of Cardona is dated April 23, 986. On that day, Earl Borrell II provided the so-called Second Settlement Letter, which is currently preserved in the city’s historical archive. Archaeological excavations, however, prove that settlements in this place already existed before, as evidenced by the Iberian remains. They were found in the Salina Valley (Salina), which later became the center of Catalonia and enriched the local lords, defining the lineage of modern Cardona. The lords, viscounts, and dukes of Cardona subsequently were in power over this jurisdiction, and this is 6% of the territory of Catalonia.
The city of Cardona, found at the foot of the castle, was born by the end of the 10th century. The appearance of the castle and the city has determined the strategic situation in the region on the border with Al-Andalus: this is the intersection of paths between the province of Urgell, Cerdanya-Berga and Osona-Barcelona. The geo-strategic position, as well as the extraction of salt and its commercialization in Europe, will later turn Cardona into the political and commercial center of Catalonia.
The exploitation of salt deposits and the establishment of the viscountcy Osona (vescomtal d’Osona) in the castle led to the fact that Cardona Castle and the city created powerful jurisdiction in the Cardenar River region between the 12th and 14th centuries. By the 15th century, the power of Cardona extended over a vast territory about 60 km long and about 50 km wide. This is a region from the Valley of Lords (Vall de Lord) to Segarra within a radius of about 40 km around the castle and the city of Cardona. So the dynasty was born: first the barons of Cardona, later in 1319 the viscount appeared, in 1375 the county, later in 1491 the duchy of Cardona was formed.
Thus, Cardona became the site of the most important jurisdictional authority of the Principality, outside the early counties of the Carolingians. From here the fiscal and judicial administration of this vast territory was carried out.
The cornerstone of this administration was the court or ducal curia, around which various officials acted in the service of lords, such as the treasurer, judge and bailiffs, all of whom were headed by the prosecutor general or governor-general.
State power in the county duchy of Cardona was carried out using three “batlies”, or judicial demarcations, which divided the territory between the cities of Cardona, Solsona and São Llorenç de Morunys, to which was also attached Vegueria de Segarra, controlled from the cities of Calaf and Torà.
However, in the mid-15th century, the constant absence of lords in the castle led Cardona to lose political power in favor of other growing political and economic centers – the cities of Manresa, Servera, and Berga. In the following centuries, Cardona was destined to lose its empire during the economic, social and political events that took place throughout Catalonia. As a result, by the middle of the 17th century, the area under the control of the Lords of Cardona was reduced to 608 sq. km, while the population was not more than 2000 people, of which 45% lived in Cardona itself, and 55% on the surrounding land.

Mediterranean resorts of France: Collioure – a place of inspiration for Picasso, Matisse, Dali

Mediterranean resorts of France: Collioure (fr. Collioure)
Collioure is an old fishing town in France, which has long been famous for its anchovies. It is an ideal holiday destination for tourists who are tired of the mad rhythm of excursions and a large crowd of people. The population is only about 3,000 inhabitants. The resort is located on the Mediterranean coast Vermilion (Vermilion). The cities of France, Collioure and Perpignan, are called the pearls of the French Purple (or Scarlet) coast. They are rightly recognized as the most picturesque towns of the south of France.
Collioure attracts visitors with its clean beaches, quiet coves, sunny weather and the green hills of the Pyrenees. A walk along the embankment contains beautiful views or through the picturesque narrow paved streets will allow you to fully experience the medieval atmosphere of the city. Collioure is also called the city of artists. Many artists such as Picasso, Matisse, Dali, Derain found inspiration for their work here.
Architecture, Collioure sights, what to see?
The embankment of the city is a great place to walk with small cozy restaurants and cafes alongside, souvenir shops and beautiful views. It is a favorite meeting place for the local youths.
Notre-Dame des Anges is the calling card of the city, thanks to the works of Matisse. This church became famous throughout the world. It has been preserved in excellent condition to the present day. This building, which was built in 1691, is one of the symbols of Collioure. The church is located in the sea harbor of Collioure. Initially (the end of the XVII century) it worked as a lighthouse, but later on the order of Marshal of France Vauban, this function was abolished.
The Royal Castle of the Templars is a powerful naval complex with a whole system of underground communications, which are still used by the French military today (it’s still used or not?). Now there is also a museum. Erected in the VII century, the citadel served as the city’s defense mechanism and its suburbs for many centuries, so it was constantly improved and strengthened, until the XVII century.
The “colored streets” is an area with narrow, labyrinth-like lanes and ancient stairs. The atmosphere here is always joyful and warm. Balconies are decorated with a huge number of multi-colored flowerpots, and the facades are covered with grapes and ivy.

Champignons and weight loss: nutritionists’ opinions and recommendations

Champignons have long been attributed as popular products and indispensable ingredients in a variety of dishes. However, it makes sense to ask the question: how appropriate are these mushrooms for diet programs? Their qualities, which make it possible to quickly cope with the feeling of hunger, make it possible to judge mushrooms as diet foods. This is confirmed by other properties. This is what my post is about today.
Champignons are rich in valuable components for the body. First of all, we are talking about vitamins. This applies to ascorbic acid, vitamins Bs, as well as fat-soluble cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol (vitamins from group D). In addition, a large number of fatty acids and a modest content of carbohydrate components in the composition of mushrooms complement their beneficial properties.
Mineral substances, as well as compounds on the basis of which proteins are formed, are also an important component of these fungi. Mushrooms also have a fairly large amount of phosphorus compounds, and this, in turn, gives them the qualities that seafood also has.
Since champignons contain vegetable protein, it is justifiable to include such mushrooms in weight-loss programs for vegetarians too. As a result, the muscles and their tone will receive proper support. This protein serves as a substitute for the proteins that make up meat products.
The content of sugary components in mushrooms is extremely small. As a result – a short list of contraindications to the use of these mushrooms for dietary purposes can be found. Moreover, they can be included in diabetic’s diets too.
Champignons have a beneficial effect on the hair and skin. Thanks to them, skin conditions can often be reduced and the skin’s appearance and color improve. In addition, vitamin B9, a component of mushrooms (also called folic acid), provides powerful support to the immune system and the functioning of the circulatory system, as well as the normalization of hormonal metabolism in women.
Being a low-calorie product, champignons are actively used in the development of diet menus. 100 grams of mushrooms account for about 30 kcal, which is a beneficial effect on the figure. Specially developed weight-loss programs with the participation of these mushrooms, include fasting. A significant share in the composition of mushrooms is water. This figure is close to 85%.
Based on a number of studies, it was found that if you replace a traditional menu with a small portion of mushrooms (it is about 160 grams), then in 30 days you can lose 2-3 kilograms of excess weight. You should not be embarrassed by such a modest portion in volume, since these mushrooms do an excellent job with the feeling of hunger and provide a steady sense of satiety.
The filling feeling that comes from eating mushrooms is achieved thanks to the fiberous nature of the vegetable. In addition, these components contribute to the normalization of metabolic processes. Additionally, energy metabolism is also activated, and the body will not face the problem of the lack of substances required for its vital activity.
As champignons combine well with other foods, they weigh in favor of the inclusion of mushrooms in diets aimed at losing weight. Mushrooms can be found in almost any grocery store, and their cost does not destroy the budget.
As a rule, mushrooms contribute to improving the taste of dishes. Cooking these mushrooms is easy enough, you do not need special skills.
As for the choice of which type of champignons is best for dieting, the prevailing opinion is that it is best to use fresh mushrooms. This conclusion was made by experts who analyzed feedback from people who have tried this weight loss program. However, this condition is not mandatory and strict. You can make a choice to use the frozen version, or use dried mushrooms in cooking. The only disadvantage with this approach would be the loss of flavor, however, the mushroom’s valuable components will remain.

Iced coffee with almond milk: the latest trend

Iced coffee with almond milk: the latest trend
Iced coffee is an exquisite drink that will help you feel more invigorated and refresh yourself on a hot summer day. It is low-calorie, which means that the drink will not ruin your figure either.
According to legend, ancestors of today’s Oromo people in a region of Kaffa in Ethiopia were believed to have been the first to recognize the energizing effect of the coffee plant, though no direct evidence has been found indicating where in Africa coffee first grew or who among the native populations might have used it as a stimulant, earlier than the 15th century. The story of Kaldi, the 9th-century Ethiopian goatherd who discovered coffee when he noticed how excited his goats became after eating the beans from a coffee plant, did not appear in writing until 1671 and is probably apocryphal.
Other accounts attribute the discovery of coffee to Sheikh Omar. According to an ancient chronicle (preserved in the Abd-Al-Kadir manuscript), Omar, who was known for his ability to cure the sick through prayer, was once exiled from Mocha in Yemen to a desert cave near Ousab (modern-day Wusab, about 90 km east of Zabid). Starving, Omar chewed berries from nearby shrubbery but found them to be bitter. He tried roasting the seeds to improve the flavor, but they became hard. He then tried boiling them to soften the seed, which resulted in a fragrant brown liquid. Upon drinking the liquid Omar was revitalized and sustained for days. As stories of this “miracle drug” reached Mocha, Omar was asked to return and was made a saint.
This recipe for cold coffee does not require a set of exotic and expensive products, so everyone can make it. This drink is served in chic restaurants with Michelin stars, so you can also pleasantly surprise your guests at your next dinner party.
So, for the ingredients you will need:
1. Ground coffee.
2. Milk made from almond, coconut or cow’s milk.
3. Honey.
4. Ice
5. Cinnamon and vanilla to taste.
First, brew a pot of strong coffee such as an american or espresso. Be sure to boil ground coffee in coffee pot. No freeze-dried coffee, it will only spoil the taste.
Then pour the coffee into a shaker (blender or other container) and add one cup of milk (coconut, almond, cow).
After that, we put ice cubes into a shaker. 5-6 pieces will be enough.
Then, instead of sugar, add 2 teaspoons of honey and beat with a mixer.
Add a few teaspoons of honey, cinnamon or vanilla extract for a little sweetness if desired.

Food from the microwave. Are microwave ovens dangerous? What is a microwave and when was it invented?

Food from the microwave. Are microwave ovens dangerous? What is a microwave and when was it invented?
Microwave ovens have taken a strong position in our kitchens. They significantly speed up the preparation and heating of food. Together with the undeniable merits of microwaves, their harmful effects on humans are also discussed. This is what my post is about today.
The history of microwave ovens
The very first patent for a microwave was issued back in 1946 in the USA. The world’s first microwave oven Radarange was released in 1947 by Raytheon and was not designed for cooking, but for the quick defrosting of food.
The installation was used only in the military. The size of the system was impressive – about the height of a person.
The mass of the furnace reached 340 kilograms. The initial power was 3 kW. The installation went to the serial production only in 1949. The official price in 1949 was $3,000.
How does a microwave work?
In order to warm up food, high-power electromagnetic waves are used in a microwave oven. They act on water molecules, penetrating into the structure of the products. Molecules start to move around the electromagnetic field and a friction effect is created, which causes the temperature of the food to rise. The whole process is carried out from the inside and takes only a few seconds, unlike usual ovens.
Is it more harmful or beneficial?
When food is heated in a microwave, its molecules move at a breakneck pace. Because of this, the integrity of the structure suffers. There is a deformation of the molecules and the disintegration of their shell. And at the output we get a product with a completely different molecular structure.
This is a scientific rationale for the harmful effect of a microwave oven on human health. Here are several factors that, according to experts, make the use of the microwave dangerous for humans:
– changes in the structure of food and as a result, that the food is more difficult to digest;
– the release of harmful carcinogens that increase the risk of cancer;
– the human body does not absorb the vitamins and mineral substances changed under the influence of electromagnetic waves;
– radiation can penetrate through the walls of the microwave oven and adversely affect the person;
– useful properties of food when heated in a microwave are lost and it becomes alien to the human body;
– a metal object that was inadvertently inside the furnace can lead to an explosion and injure a person
Swiss scientists conducted an experiment: they hired a man who was alternately fed food from a microwave and food cooked in the traditional way.

Soy – a natural and affordable nutritional product from the twenty-first century

Soy – a natural and affordable nutritional product from the twenty-first century
Soy is a real wonder food that is cheap compared to other mass food products in the twenty-first century. It is a nutritious source of protein and more. This is what my post is about today.
The best-selling food in the world is soy in one form or another. However, why is everyone so afraid of this word? Is it worth being afraid of?
Soy is a natural product and you should not be afraid of soy. For example, for more than two thousand years it has been the basis of Chinese cuisine.
Fresh or frozen soybeans are good to boil or can be steamed as a side dish. It can also be added to soups. It is proven that the constant consumption of soybeans reduces the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (and significantly).
Soy is often included in the so-called Asian diets. Soybean can even protect against osteoporosis. Soy has great advantages – it protects against colon cancer and breast cancer.
Soybeans are available in dried, canned and frozen form. Soybean milk, soybean powder, soy protein and soybean flour are all in great demand. This product contains a lot of nutrients, as a result doctors recommend including soy in the diet.
Useful properties of soybeans:
1. Soy contains proteins and estrogens – they help the heart and create resistance to cancer.
2. For people with high cholesterol levels, adding soy is mandatory. Soy reduces the so-called bad cholesterol and increases the values of good cholesterol.
3. For those people who have normal or borderline cholesterol (approximately 200), soy helps with cholesterol reduction.
4. Soybean when replacing animal protein in food can prevent clogged arteries.
5. Soy contains vegetable estrogens called isoflavones.

Best Mediterranean resorts: France and Spain

среда, 28 ноября 2018 г.

Все о баклажанах

Баклажан – король сада. Пурпурно-черного цвета, с глянцевым блеском и шапочкой, похожей на корону, он выглядит как настоящая коронованная особа. Да и его вкус по достоинству оценит даже королевская семья! Аппетитные баклажаны по-пармски, фаршированные или жареные – эти овощи всегда произведут фурор на столе. Об этом мой блог сегодня.
Начало выращивания баклажанов
Баклажаны существуют уже давно. Это выходцы из Индии, но были они известны и в Аравии, где шейхи и шахи очень высоко ценили их. Арабы познакомили с ними жителей Испании, которые позднее привезли их в эту страну, и уже к 1806 году здесь выращивали как фиолетовые, так и белые сорта.
Одна из самых ранних ссылок на баклажаны – китайская книга пятого века. Похоже, что китаянки считали очень модным окрашивать свои зубы черным красителем из баклажанов. Затем они полировали зубы, пока те не начинали сиять подобно металлу.
Но баклажаны как еда или модный аксессуар были популярны не везде. В Европе 15-го и 16-го веков баклажаны назывались “безумными яблоками”, потому что считалось, что их употребление в пищу делает человека сумасшедшим. Даже когда этот страх начал угасать, европейцы все равно отказывались есть баклажаны, так как считали их ядовитыми. Баклажан является членом семейства пасленовых, как и помидоры, картофель, табак и белладонна. Глазные капли, полученные из белладонны (также называемой смертоносным пасленом), использовались модными женщинами для визуального увеличения глаз. Время от времени кто-нибудь из употреблявших белладонну умирал от последствий отравления. Неудивительно, что, ассоциируя баклажаны со смертоносным пасленом, люди избегали употреблять их в пищу.
Среди других интересных названий баклажанов – яблоко любви, гвинейская тыква, овсяная фасоль, гороховое яблоко, кукумбер и теронг. Еще более впечатляют такие эпитеты, как “яблоко Содома” и “яблоко еврея”. Немногие продукты могут похвастаться таким разнообразием имен.
Интересное о баклажанах
Очень старая легенда о ближневосточном или турецком происхождении баклажанов рассказывает об имаме (мусульманском священнике), который женился на женщине, чей богатый отец зарабатывал деньги в качестве торговца оливковым маслом. Приданым молодой невесты были 12 бочек оливкового масла. В течение 12 ночей жена имама подавала мужу блюдо из вкусного баклажана, приготовленного на оливковом масле, но на тринадцатую ночь на тарелке не оказалось этого вкусного овоща. Имам полюбопытствовал, почему так произошло. Когда жена сказала ему, что у нее закончилось оливковое масло, имам просто свалился в обморок. С этого времени фаршированное блюдо из баклажанов, заправленное луком, томатами и оливковым маслом, начали называть “имам балди”, что означает “обморок священника”. В другой версии этой истории имам был настолько сражен необыкновенным ароматом баклажана, что потерял сознание.
Поскольку баклажан является неотъемлемой частью турецкой кухни, он может появиться практически в любом блюде. Один из иностранных гостей Турции однажды попросил в конце трапезы: “мне просто обычную воду, без баклажанов, пожалуйста”.

Горный туризм в Андорре

горный туризм
Горный туризм в Андорре
Часто, после напряженного месяца, хочется расслабиться и снять стресс. Можно отправиться на прогулку с друзьями или семьей, а можно выбраться в горы. Горы, как и море, обладают способностью успокаивать, наполняют энергией, восстанавливают психологическое равновесие.
Если даже сомневаетесь, то почему бы не попробовать горный туризм хотя бы раз. Горный туризм возглавляет список фаворитов большинства туристов. Это связано с фантастическими впечатлениями, которые память будет хранить долгие годы.
Горы всегда были одним из самых притягательных мест для человека. Для жителей равнин, горы – это другом мир, другая планета, которая завораживает чистым холодным воздухом и внушительными массивами.
Существует множество фирм, которые предлагают горный туризм. Вы приобретаете тур, а агентство берет на себя всю организацию: встреча в аэропорту ил на вокзале, доставит до лагеря, организует проживание, предоставит гидов, поможет со снаряжением. Поэтому новичкам не стоит волноваться. Есть индивидуальные гиды, но иногда попадаются непрофессионалы, так что лучше обращаться в проверенные турфирмы и не рисковать.
Часто горный туризм путают с альпинизмом. Это два разных понятия. В горном туризме есть элементы скалолазания, но они рассчитаны даже на новичков. Вам не придется взбираться вверх на самую вершину, как альпинисту. Цель горного туризма – не восхождение по вертикали, прохождение перевалов по горизонтали. Но это отличие не делает горный туризм менее привлекательным.
Естественная красота холмистой местности с незабываемыми горами, водопадом, рафтингом и трекингом, заставит вас повторить путешествие снова.
Теперь выбор полностью принадлежит вам, будь это культурный или горный туризм, вы определенно получите эмоциональный заряд от путешествия на месяцы вперед.
Андорра – страна гор. Андорра находится на юго-западе евразийского континента, между Испанией и Францией, в восточной части склонов Пиренейских гор. Страна не имеет выходов к морю, большая ее часть находится в гористой местности, на высоте, превышающей 900 метров над уровнем моря.
Рельеф территории Андорры можно отнести к типично горным. Для него характерны вздымающиеся вверх пики вершин, обрывающиеся вниз скалы, ущелья, бурные горные реки, петляющие мимо гор долины. Рельеф этой части Пиренейских гор относится к периоду палеозоя и мезозоя. Что касается многочисленных озер, дающих начало многочисленным андоррским рекам, то, как свидетельствуют научные данные, они имеют ледниковое прoисхождениe. Всего на территории страны 65 горных вершин.
Расположенная в горной местности Андорра соединена с внешним миром рядом горных перевалов. Наиболее трудным является сообщение с Францией, потому что круглогодично функционирует только один перевал – Энвалира. Остальные перевалы большую часть года занесены снегом и могут использоваться только как тропы.
Рельеф местности Андорры – причина того, что основной вид туризма в Андорре – горный туризм. 
Пешеходные прогулки – лучший способ познакомиться с ландшафтами страны. Во время такого путешествия, не спеша, шаг за шагом, открываются всё новые и новые секреты, на которые так щедра природа. Андорра предлагает несколько пешеходных маршрутов на большие расстояния: и вдоль, и поперёк этой удивительной страны. Всего в Андорре 3 национальных парка, один из которых входит во Всемирное наследие Юнеско. Летом по Андорре доступны более 250 км пешеходных трасс по красивейшим местам Пиренеев.
Виа феррата – разновидность альпинизма, предполагает преодоление скального участка, как вертикального, так и горизонтального, специально оборудованного металлическими конструкциями, помогающими преодолевать его с большей скоростью и меньшими затратами энергии, чем при скалолазании его обычном понимании. Все основные участки пешеходных маршрутов по территории Андорры имеют оборудование для виа феррата.
Альпинизм в Андорре доступен не только летом, но и зимой. Так что это дает возможность совместить горные лыжи и экстремальный альпинизм. Дикая природа по праву считается главным союзником княжества. В отдельных местах Пиренейские горы поднимаются более, чем 1300 метров над долиной, где сосредоточено основное население княжества. “Крышей” Андорры – самой высокой её точкой – является el Pic de Comapedrosa (высота 2942 м над уровнем моря). Пик возвышается над долиной Arinsal. Всего в Андорре 7 высокогорных вершин, которые превышают 2900 м. Круглый год андоррские пики доступны месте с Карлесом Желем (профессиональный гид, альпинист, писатель, полярный исследователь).