понедельник, 21 июня 2021 г.

Cars links DA 80 2020

Around the knights, whom some call fearless warriors, devoted vassals, defenders of the weak, noble servants of beautiful ladies, gallant cavaliers, while others call them unstable in battle, breaking their word, greedy robbers, cruel oppressors, wild rapists, arrogant ignoramuses, history revolved in essence. European Middle Ages, because in those days they were the only real power. The strength that everyone needed: kings against neighbors and recalcitrant vassals, peasants, churches; churches - against the Gentiles, kings, peasants, townspeople; lesser lords - against neighbors, the king, peasants; peasants - against the knights of neighboring lords.

The townspeople, however, did not need knights, but they always used their military experience. After all, a knight is first and foremost a professional warrior. But not just a warrior. Knight, rater, chevalier, etc. means rider in all languages. But not just a rider, but a rider in a helmet, armor, with a shield, spear and sword. All this equipment was very expensive: back at the end of the 10th century, when the calculation was not for money, but for cattle, a set of weapons, then not so plentiful and complex, together with a horse cost 45 cows or 15 mares. And this is the size of the herd or herd of the whole village.

But it is not enough to pick up a weapon - you need to be able to use it perfectly. This requires relentless, exhausting training from a very young age. No wonder boys from knightly families were taught to wear armor from childhood - complete sets for 6-8-year-old children are known. Therefore, a heavily armed rider must be a wealthy man with time. Large rulers could only keep a very small number of such warriors at court. Where to get the rest? After all, a strong peasant, even if he has 45 cows, will not give them up for a pile of iron and a beautiful horse, but not suitable for farming. There was a way out: the king obliged small landowners to work for a certain time for a large one, to supply him with the right amount of food and handicrafts, and he had to be ready to serve the king as a heavily armed horseman for a certain number of days a year.


A complex feudal system was built on such relations in Europe. And by the XI-XII centuries. heavily armed horsemen turned into a caste of knights. Access to this privileged estate became more and more difficult, based already on generosity, which was confirmed by letters and coats of arms. Still: who wants to crowd and allow outsiders to a fat piece. And the piece was fat, and the further, the more.

For an oath of allegiance to the lord, the knight received land with peasants working for him, the right to judge them, the right to collect and appropriate taxes, the right to hunt, the right to the first night, etc. He could go to the courts of the lords, have fun all day long, drink away, lose in the cities the money collected from the peasants. His duties were reduced to ensuring that during the hostilities he served on his grubs to the seigneur for about a month a year, and usually even less. For "overtime" service there was a big salary. Military booty - trophies, ransom for prisoners, the prisoners themselves - also went to the knight. It was possible during off-duty hours to work "to the left" - to hire an outside seigneur or the city magistrate. Gradually, the knights began to skimp more and more on their duties. Sometimes, under the terms of a fief contract, a knight had to serve the amount of time for which he had enough food. And such a brave man would appear with a ham, make every effort to eat it in three days, and leave for his castle.

Well, how did the knights fight? Differently. It is very difficult to compare them with anyone, since they were militarily left to their own devices in Europe. Of course, infantry also participated in the battles - each knight brought with him servants armed with spears and axes, and large rulers hired large detachments of archers and crossbowmen. But until the XIV century. the outcome of the battle was always determined by a few gentlemen-knights, while numerous infantry servants were for the masters, although necessary, but only a help. The knights did not take them into account at all. And what could a crowd of untrained peasants do against a professional fighter clad in armor on a mighty horse? The knights despised their own infantry. Burning with impatience to fight with a worthy opponent, that is, a knight, they trampled on their horses who were interfering with their own foot soldiers. With the same indifference, the knights treated riders without armor, only with swords and light spears. In one of the battles, when a group of knights was attacked by a detachment of light riders, they did not even budge, but simply slashed the enemy horses with their long spears and only then rode on a worthy enemy - the knights.