пятница, 28 августа 2020 г.

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Only the Araucan tribes that lived on the territory of Chile fought against foreign invasion for more than three centuries and were subjugated only in the middle of the 19th century. What is the reason? In Araucania, the loss of the Spaniards in the XVI century. were more significant than in all other regions of the New World combined.

In the author's opinion, this is explained, paradoxically, by the socio-economic backwardness of the Araucans in comparison with the developed civilizations of the Maya, Aztecs, Incas, Chibcha-Muisca. Araucanians did not have a clearly defined property stratification; they also did not have private ownership of land. Material goods belonged to the community and were distributed in accordance with the contribution of each to its life. As a result, there were no internecine wars, which the Spaniards so successfully used. And every Araucania Indian really defended his hearth, his land, his freedom, so far not infringed on anything.

For five centuries, many books have been written that touch on the problems of the conquest. Famous Spanish writer of the XIX century. Manuel Quintana, speaking of the conquistadors, rightly noted that "their excessive envy, their ruthless rage, all these crimes were on the conscience of Time, not Spain." Famous Argentine thinker and politician

of the last century, Domingo Faustino Sarmiento believed that when the conquistador "went to America, he had not yet left the Middle Ages."

The Conquista turned Spain into the largest empire of the time, within which the sun never set. For the conquered peoples, the consequences of the conquest had a dual meaning: on the one hand, enormous damage was inflicted on their unique culture, on the other hand, the process of mutual enrichment of the civilizations of Europe and America was initiated.

The history of the conquest was often distinguished by illogicality, paradoxicality, and the established principles of military art were refuted. Francisco Pizarro, conquering in the early 30s. 16th century the Inca Empire, recalled his conversations with Hernan Cortes: why not try to capture the Great Inca Atahualpa in the same way as his relative captured Montezuma?

Having set up camp in the city of Cajamarca, Pizarro began to prepare for the appearance of the emperor, who wished to look at the white aliens. Expecting a distinguished guest, he first of all took care of the optimal disposition of his forces. Cannons were installed in the center of the main city square, where the welcoming ceremony was to take place, a group with arquebuses was located on a high tower, three cavalry squadrons were led by the most capable and loyal people.

Atahualpa considered that 5-6 thousand troops were enough to reliably ensure his security. Can anyone doubt this, outnumbering the Spaniards by 40 times! The Inca was on his way to Cajamarca to demonstrate his greatness. His endless convoy dazzled with its luxury and wealth; young women amazed with their beauty and magnificent dresses, numerous singers did not stop, dancers did not spare their feet; notable persons stood out among them with degree. On a special platform, eight Indians carried the throne of Atahualpa. The possession of this throne alone would have made the most impracticable dreams of the conquistadors a reality: there was so much gold, silver, and precious stones in it. The golden Sun and silver Moon that adorned the throne emphasized how high and inaccessible to mere mortals its owner was.

Atahualpe came out to meet the priest Vincente Valverde with a cross and a Bible in his hands. Through an Indian translator, he told the emperor that Jesus Christ, the son of God, transferred power over the earth to the Holy Apostle Paul and his followers, the Popes, and they, in turn, instructed the King of Spain, Charles V, to convert the peoples of the New World to the Christian faith.

Calmly listening to the words of the priest, Atahualpa asked for a Bible and said: “This book does not tell me anything. I do not know the God who created the earth and the sky, and at the same time I am convinced that the world was created by Pachacamac (the ancient god of the Quechua Indians, the "creator" of the world and light) and that the Sun and Moon, whom we worship, are immortal, and Jesus Christ that you were talking about is dead. I have never heard of your Pope giving away countries that are not his. No one has the right to possess my kingdom without my knowledge." After these words, the Inca scornfully threw the Bible on the ground. Isn't this the kind of reaction that the operation was designed for? “Revenge, Christians! Attack the heretics who have desecrated the Bible!” shouted the priest.