For several decades, there have been disputes about the origin of design.
Various versions are being considered.
The history of design as a design and artistic activity originates in the middle of the 19th century and is associated with the development of industrial production, which created the need for a new profession.
Design as a link between arts and crafts. Refers to the rise of the famous English "Arts and Crafts Movement" at the end of the 19th century, led by William Morris, when the main provisions of the theory and creative principles of design were formed, which influenced the schools and trends of later years.
Design as an artistic and industrial activity: the beginning of the 20th century, when artists took leading positions in a number of branches of modern industry and were able to shape the corporate identity of enterprises and influence the production policy of electrical appliances, cars, radio equipment (the activities of Peter Behrens at AEG and the American automobile company "Ford").
Design as the emergence of a graduate refers to the emergence of the first schools and methodologies for teaching design. (VHUTEMAS in the USSR (1920), Bauhaus in Germany (1919).
The formation of design as a profession, depending on its real entry into life - directly into production, trade. The chronological countdown in this case starts from an even later time - from the 1930s, more precisely from the time the United States emerged from the great economic crisis.
Design, as a layout activity, takes its start from the tools of primitive man, who first encountered the concepts of the convenience of tools, the issues of increasing productivity, the layout of objects, the first hints at the ergonomics of objects.
History of design in styles
In addition to design icons that embody the aesthetic ideals of a certain historical period, the technical and artistic ideas of their creators, artistic styles are of particular importance in describing the history of design. V. Vlasov in his well-known dictionary "Styles in Art" notes that the entire history of world art can be considered as the history of artistic styles. This equally applies to styles in the history of design, which, according to certain formal features, unite design icons into unique integral artistic movements and trends. The above-mentioned art critic V.Vlasov, considering the internal structure of the concept of "style", identifies a number of its levels: historical artistic style, historical-regional (stylistic trend) and individual style of the master. The same can be observed in the history of design. Styles in design as part of a general artistic culture correspond with large historical artistic styles in art, and especially architecture. Suffice it to recall also common artistic styles, such as art deco, pop art, postmodern and high-tech. At the same time, in object shaping, they certainly transform into their own stylistic trends, reflecting the specifics of the shaping of mass products in the conditions of industrial technologies.
История дизайна в дизайн-иконах
Историю архитектуры пишут по памятникам архитектуры или фотографиям и гравюрам утраченных объектов, чертежам и рисункам-фантазиям неосуществленных проектов. Историю искусств — по собраниям в музеях изобразительных искусств, картинных галереях, частным коллекциям картин. Историю дизайна, в основном, по шедеврам дизайнерской деятельности — дизайн-иконам.
Timeline of design history research
The first theories about the correlation of beauty and usefulness belong to the ancient Greek scientists Socrates, Aristippus, Protagoras, Plato, Aristotle. Even then, philosophers first thought about the differences between art and science in terms of their goal setting. Even then there were works on combinatorics: on the connection of man and machine "Theatre of Automata" by Heron of Alexandria. Such albums were widely distributed under the name "Theaters of Machines" during the Renaissance. A separate place in this list is occupied by the treatises of Leonardo da Vinci. Then, in chronological order, the works of Geoffroy Tory on typefaces (1529), Gottfried Leibniz's On the Art of Combinatorics (1666), Andrei Nartov's Theatrium Mahinarum (1720), David Hume's Treatise on the Nature of Man (1740), Reflections on Nature and Principles of the Senses” by Archibald Alison (1790), “On the Influence of Painting on the Art Industry” by Emile Ekmerid-David (1805), “Theory of Organ Projection” by Pavel Florensky. The emergence of industrial production contributed to the development of critical thought.
A significant contribution to the development of theoretical views of the history of design and its popularization was played and is being played by periodicals. Henry Cole's first special journal on the aesthetic problems of the object world and its design was the Journal of Design and Manufactures (1849). Later, specialized magazines Pan (1895), Decorative Kunst (1897), Kunst und Handwerk (1898) appeared. This is the Jugend magazine, from which the German version of the name of the Art Nouveau style came from - Jugendstil. Widely known in Central Europe was the Scandinavian magazine Form and Function, in the USSR - Technical Aesthetics. Many design groups and individual masters formulated their creative credo in manifestos, slogans, conceptual articles:
A special place in the historical and theoretical studies of design is occupied by "state design", which gave impetus to an integrated approach to the study of industrial design. The design council was first established in England at the end of World War II. In 1962, the All-Union Research Institute of Technical Aesthetics was established in the USSR. Thus, in the second half of the 20th century, a material and theoretical basis was prepared for special studies in the field of the history of design. It was not long in coming: by the end of the century, a number of comprehensive studies on the history of design appeared. These are the well-known works of the English theorists Catherine McDermott, Charlotte and Peter Fill, German art historians Thomas Haufe, Wolfgang Schiepers and Peter Schmidt.
Imagination - the ability of consciousness to create images, representations, ideas and manipulate them; plays a key role in the following mental processes: modeling, planning, creativity, play, human memory. In a broad sense, any process that takes place "in images" is imagination. Imagination is the basis of visual-figurative thinking, which allows a person to navigate the situation and solve problems without the direct intervention of practical actions. It helps him in many ways in those cases of life when practical actions are either impossible, or difficult, or simply inappropriate. For example, when modeling abstract processes and objects.
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