вторник, 22 марта 2022 г.

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In the new Stone Age, the first artificial material invented by man appeared - refractory clay. Previously, people used for their needs what nature gave - stone, wood, bone. Dishes were also made from wood, shells, and large nut shells. Baskets were woven from flexible branches, and bags were made from animal skins. It is difficult to cook hot food in such dishes (one way is to throw a red-hot stone into a leather bag filled with food). Now the dishes began to be molded from clay, mixing it with water, sand, crushed stone or chopped straw. These additives were necessary so that the dishes would not crack during firing. The vessels molded from the resulting mass were dried, collected in a heap, shifted and covered with combustible material (for example, sheep dung cakes), and set on fire. Slight, but prolonged heat made it possible to burn the vessels quite well.

The invention of earthenware refractory dishes made it possible to cook dishes known to us such as cereals, soups, stews, fry food using oil. Meat and vegetables were not only baked and fried over an open fire, but also boiled.

The dishes were made by women. They made not only comfortable, but also beautiful things. The rough surface of the prepared vessel was covered with liquid colored clay and painted with mineral paints. Some preferred not to draw, but to scratch patterns or apply them with special stamps. Everyone who has ever been to historical museums remembers these bowls, dishes, pots, huge vessels for storing grain and other supplies.

Ornaments on vessels and other things were very diverse, especially in the areas of ancient agriculture, in the East. These are geometric shapes, and flower rosettes, and figurines of animals, and dancing people. The ornaments are so perfect that they can be mistaken for the creation of specially trained artists. However, they were made by women who adopted the skill from their ancestors. They owe their art to a long tradition, searches and mistakes of many generations.

They painted not only vessels, but also the walls of dwellings. These were simple ornaments that varied among different communities, as well as images of animals and people. Simple patterns were made by ordinary women, and complex, multi-figured patterns intended for ceremonies were made by women and men with special knowledge of customs and traditions. In houses with such images, as is known from the excavations of the settlement in Turkey, amazing in terms of the wealth of finds, Catal Huyuk, rituals were periodically performed, and each time the wall painting was updated for them.

Another important device was molded from clay - stoves and hearths. Depending on the purpose, they had a different form. There were ovens for baking bread. In the southern regions they were low, round, with a wide opening at the top. First, a fire was lit in them, and then, when it died down, and the walls became hot enough, cakes of dough were stuck on them from the inside.

At this time, people began to wear a lot of jewelry, which at the same time served as amulets for them - protectors from evil spirits. These works of art, for all their modesty, are very beautiful. At that time, there were no professional artists working to meet the needs of wealthy people, there were not only palaces, but even rich houses. Everything that we used to consider art was life itself. Singing and dancing accompanied not only festivities, but also household chores.

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