вторник, 25 января 2022 г.

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During one of the wars with an alliance of Samnite tribes in Central Italy, the Romans were ambushed in a narrow, wooded Kandinsky Gorge. The consuls at the head of the army were forced to accept all the conditions dictated by the Samnites, and, moreover, the entire Roman army was subjected to severe humiliation. Having handed over their weapons, half-dressed warriors passed one by one under the yoke - a structure of three spears in the form of the letter P.

But the defeat did not stop the Romans. Gathering their strength, taking into account their mistakes, they again rushed to the offensive. The war gave great booty and, most importantly, land, which the peasants always lacked. The benefits of the conquests were felt by all members of the community, and this united them. By the 60s. 3rd century BC. almost all of Italy was conquered by the Romans. The conquered cities and communities were declared allies of Rome and, while retaining the rights of internal self-government, were supposed to supply auxiliary military detachments to the Roman army. Some of the most privileged communities received the rights of municipalities - their inhabitants, having moved to Rome, had the rights of Roman citizenship.

The transformation of Rome from a small, unknown peasant community into the ruler of all of Italy not only amazed his contemporaries, but also made the Romans themselves think about the reasons for their victories. The Romans explained them by the ideal political structure of their state and the superiority of their customs and customs over the customs of other peoples. They were sure that their city was specially created by the gods in order to conquer other peoples and establish their own order throughout the world. The Romans considered courage, endurance, diligence, adamant honesty and justice to be the highest virtues. An example of these virtues was such a hero as Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, appointed during a difficult war with the Italic tribes of the Equi and Sabines in 458 BC. dictator. The Roman historian Titus of Livy tells that when the envoys of the Senate came to Cincinnatus, he was working on his small piece of land. Wiping off the dust and sweat and putting on a toga, he listened to the ambassadors and immediately set off for Rome. Having defeated the enemies and laid down his dictatorial powers, Cincinnatus again returned to his field (see Art. "Dictatorship").

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