вторник, 25 января 2022 г.

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Having subjugated Italy to its power, Rome fixed its greedy eyes on the rich and fertile island of Sicily. It was an enviable booty. But in order to capture it, Rome would have to face off against the largest power in the Western Mediterranean, Carthage. This city was founded on the northern coast of Africa in the 9th century. BC. Phoenicians, who from ancient times had the glory of sailors and merchants. The Romans did not have their own fleet. In a land battle, their militia could well fight on an equal footing with the army of Carthage, but at sea he was the sovereign master. Still, Rome took the risk. And he came out victorious from a difficult and deadly fight.

The victory over Carthage, and then over numerous commanders and kings in the Eastern Mediterranean region, turned Rome into the 2nd century. BC. into a world power. These victories further convinced the Romans of their superiority over the whole world. However, the Greeks regarded the Romans as barbarians* cruel, bloodthirsty and ignorant. These qualities were especially pronounced in the Romans' love for crude spectacles such as fisticuffs, baiting animals and gladiatorial battles. The custom of organizing gladiator fights in memory of the deceased appeared in Rome under the influence of the Etruscans. But then the deadly fights of armed people began to take place in the circus arena for the amusement of the audience.
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After the great conquests, the ancient manners and customs, in which the Romans were so proud, were severely tested by wealth and power. And they couldn't stand it. Victorious wars gave Rome huge booty: money, precious weapons, gold and silver utensils, works of art, many thousands of slaves - all this flowed to Rome in an endless stream. Warriors were enriched, and even more so were the victorious commanders. The soldiers proclaimed them emperors - winners, and the senate gave the right to a triumph - a solemn passage in a chariot, behind which the army marched and the booty stolen in the war swept. The conquered countries turned into Roman provinces, i.e. lands obtained by victory in the war and owned by the entire community. They were taxed, had to support the troops and governors located on their territory. The governors were appointed by the Senate from among the former senior magistrates. They usually returned to Rome with huge fortunes, and for ordinary citizens in the provinces there were great opportunities for enrichment.

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