четверг, 13 января 2022 г.

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On the wave of speeches against Wang Mang, who was killed in 23, Liu Xiu advanced. In 25, he assumed the title of sovereign, marking the beginning of the Eastern, or Late, Han Dynasty (25-220). It was called Eastern because the capital was moved from the west - from the city of Chang'an - to the east, to the city of Luoyang.

In the Eastern Han era, iron smelting and salt evaporation began to use hydraulic blowers in furnaces that ran on natural gas. A method was found for making cheap paper from tree bark, hemp combs, rags, and old fishing tackle.

The new dynasty was warlike. There were wars with North Vietnam, whose ruler refused to pay tribute to the Chinese court; Chinese troops fought fiercely with the Huns in Central Asia.

There was also a struggle within the country. The mortal blow for the Eastern Han dynasty was in 184 the peasant uprising of the Yellow Bandages (such bandages were worn on the heads of the rebels). The fall of the dynasty was completed by the civil strife of officials and landowners. The last sovereign of the Eastern Han Xian-di was taken away from the capital and became a hostage of the military leaders Dong Zhuo and Cao Cao. Both, like their predecessor Wang Mang, are considered the greatest traitors in the history of China, for they betrayed their sovereign.

With the fall of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the unified Chinese state broke up into three independent kingdoms: Wei with its capital in Luoyang, Wu with its capital in Jiankang, and Shu with its capital in Chengdu.

The period of the Three Kingdoms began, which lasted from 220 to 280 and was accompanied by strife and unrest. In 263, the troops of the Wei kingdom destroyed the Shu kingdom, in 280 they conquered the Wu kingdom. Since 265, the ruling dynasty called itself the Western Jin. 10 years after the unification of the country, a rebellion of eight princes broke out, then there was an invasion of the western and northern nomadic tribes in the region of the Central Plain.

In 316, the Western Jin dynasty was forced to move the capital to the south. In 318, its ruler was overthrown, and the Eastern dynasty began to rule

Jin (317-420), with its capital in Jiankang (modern Nanjing). In 420, the commander Liu Yu seized the throne, establishing the Song Dynasty. The period of the southern dynasties began. The Chinese states of the southern dynasties were opposed by the states created in northern China by the non-Chinese Xian-bi people. They were led by rulers from the Northern Wei, Northern Qi and Northern Zhou dynasties.

Despite the civil strife of the Khai rulers, by this time the formation and strengthening of the community of the Han people, based on the unity of language, writing and customs (primarily the custom of honoring ancestors) had taken place.
They say there is a beautiful country, surrounded on all sides by blue mountains. Why not go there? Iwa-ro turned to his brother Itsuse. Taking his silence as consent, Ivaro added resolutely: "Let's go there."

So, according to legend, the people of the Tenson and Izumo tribes migrated from the island of Kyushu to the island of Honshu. Ivaro put his men on the ships and set off. The campaign lasted 7 years. They rounded the shores of their native Kyushu, entered the Sea of ​​Japan and landed on the western coast of Honshu. Moving east, they settled on flat lands, which later formed the possessions of the Yamato state they created, and were the center of the formation of the Japanese people.

However, Ivaro was met as an enemy by the elders of the tribes who had previously settled in these places. They put up strong resistance to the invaders. The local elder Nagasunz-hiko and his supporters fought especially hard. Ivaro even had to leave Yamato. Only after the death of the enemy, he and his fellow tribesmen returned there.

Having settled in a new place, Ivaro, as the legend says, first of all built a sanctuary to store three magical items: a metal mirror, a sword and a jasper necklace. According to beliefs, they were passed on as signs of power to her grandson, the god Ninigi, by the sun goddess Amaterasu. Possession of them gave Ivaro a reason to consider himself one of the heirs of the gods and consider his power divine. With his campaigns of conquest, he laid the foundation for the formation of a tribal union under the leadership of leaders, and later kings - ten-no. Ivaro, according to the Japanese chronicles, ruled from 660 to 585 BC. After his death, he was named "Jimmu-tenno" - "Heavenly" or "Divine King".

Beginning with Jimmu-tenno, power in the family of the ruler of Yamato passed by inheritance. At first, the king differed little in his position from the head of the ruling family or the leader of the tribe, but gradually his power extended to the other leaders of the Yamato. With the increase in the number of members of the royal family, it becomes customary to allocate land to them.

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