пятница, 14 января 2022 г.

Валенсия социальные сети

Ancient China... There, since time immemorial, the earth has been yellow. And the yellow waters of the great river, which they called so - Yellow - Huang He. Sitting on its shore, the goddess Nuwa sculpted little men from yellow clay. They slipped out of her life-giving hands and populated this land. Their lord was called the Yellow Sovereign - Huangdi. So the legend tells.

Fertile soil and an abundance of water determined the main occupation of the ancient inhabitants of the Huang He Valley - agriculture. Exploring new lands far from water, people learned how to irrigate them by laying canals.

They began to get a larger harvest when tools began to be made not from stone, as before, but from bronze and iron. An arrow with a metal tip instead of a flint or bone one and an iron sword instead of a stone or club were much more convenient for hunting and in battle. The ability to use them to appropriate the property of neighbors, to annex foreign lands gave rise to frequent wars between various clans and tribes. Clashes with neighbors-foreigners continued with the advent of state formations: destinies, principalities, kingdoms.

The Shang tribe with resettlement in the Huang He valley began to be called Yin. It settled on new lands, after a bloody struggle, driving out the Qiang or Xia tribe that lived here earlier.

The shang-yin elders turned from tribal leaders into sole rulers. Among the subjects, the idea of ​​them as "sons of Heaven", who received power at the behest of divine forces, was strengthened. This was a turning point in the formation of the state in the Central Plain, as the Yellow River valley has long been called. "Zhong Guo" - "Middle State" - this is how the people of China themselves began to call their country.

The state of Shang-Yin, having existed from 1766 to 1122 BC, fell under the rule of the Zhou tribe, whose rulers, who ruled from 1122 to 247 BC, called themselves vans - kings. The first of these was U-van - "King Warrior". He handed out lands and titles to his comrades-in-arms: “gun”, “hou”, “bo”, “zi”, “nan”, which is similar to the European “duke”, “prince”, “count”, “baron”, “baronet”. Under the onslaught of neighboring tribes and their own tribal nobility, the Zhou kingdom broke up into destinies. This time (from 770 to 403 BC) the inhabitants of the Middle State sometimes called "Spring and Autumn".
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The rulers of the destinies fought with each other and with neighbors-foreigners, who were considered savages. Spring and Autumn were replaced by the hard times of the Warring States, which lasted almost two centuries - from 403 to 221 BC. The rulers of the seven kingdoms entered into a deadly fight. “In the battles for the capture of cities, the dead overwhelmed the cities,” wrote a contemporary, “and in the battles for the lands, the battlefields were completely covered with the bodies of the dead.” After one such battle near Changping in 260 BC. the warriors of the Qin kingdom buried alive 400 thousand warriors of the Zhao kingdom who had surrendered.

The kingdom of Qin emerged victorious from the war. His victories over his neighbors were facilitated by the new organization of the troops: there were young people in the attacking detachments, and elderly soldiers in the defenders.

Having conquered all six kingdoms of rivals and perpetrated massacre there, the ruler of Qin, the thirteen-year-old Zheng-wang, declared himself "huangdi" (lord, emperor) and began to be called Qin Shw-huangdi - the first emperor of Qin. In the lands subject to him, he put an end to the power of the specific rulers. The whole country was divided into regions, and those, in turn, into counties. The heads of the regions and counties were appointed from the capital and could be removed at any moment at the will of the Huangdi. In the former six kingdoms, tortoise shells, shells, and pieces of jasper were used as money. Qin Shi Huangdi ordered to pay only in gold and copper coins. Life in the state had to go according to general rules. The emperor introduced unified written signs, streamlined measures of weight and length, established the same gauge for wagons, approved laws binding on all, ordered all ritual utensils and weapons to be made according to a single model.

Qin Shih Huangdi considered strict observance of laws to be the paramount condition for order in the country. The rebels were to be executed. The family was responsible for the behavior of each of its members. So they hoped to eradicate robbers and robbers.

Once in Sanyang, the capital of the new state, more than 460 people were executed. All residents of the country were informed about this. The strength of family ties was strongly supported. The murder of a husband who destroys his family by his behavior was ordered not to be considered a crime.

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