среда, 23 февраля 2022 г.

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True, it is impossible to deny the existence of the city of Troy somewhere in the northwestern region of Asia Minor. Documents from the archives of the Hittite kings testify that the Hittites knew both the city of Troy and the city of Ilion (in the Hittite version of "Truis" and "Vilus"), but, apparently, as two different cities located in the neighborhood, and not one under a double title, as in a poem. The Hittites also knew the country of Ahkhiyava, a powerful state with which they vied for dominance over these cities. Scientists believe that Ahkhiyava is the country of the Achaeans, but it is not yet clear where it was located. Maybe this is the western part of Asia Minor, or the islands closest to it, or the whole of Balkan Greece. There was a conflict between the Hittite state and Ahkhiyava over the city of Ilion, but it was settled peacefully. The Hittite documents do not tell about any large-scale military clash between the Achaeans and Troy.

What conclusion can be drawn by comparing the data from the archive of the Hittite kings and the poetic narrative about the campaign against Troy? Some connection between them can be traced, but very unclear, since there are no exact matches. Apparently, in the oral folk art underlying the poem, events of different times were compressed together: the failed attempt of the Achaean Greeks to subjugate the Troad region (this can be traced through the tragic fate of the Achaean heroes after the capture of Troy) and the death of the cities of Ilion and Troy as a result of the invasion called "peoples of the sea", which shook the entire ancient world of the Mediterranean at the end of the XII century. BC.


Solon, the son of Exekestides, entered the history of ancient Greece as a great reformer, the founder of the polis democracy of Athens. Among his contemporaries and among subsequent generations of Hellenes, he enjoyed the glory of a great poet and sage. Solon came from a very ancient royal family of Codrids. According to legend, Codrus is the last king of Athens, who sacrificed his life to save his native city. He was buried on the Acropolis, and the grateful Athenians honored him as a hero.

According to his property status, Solon belonged to people of average means. His father spent all his fortune on helping those in need, and Solon in his youth made a lot of efforts to get rich: poverty was not respected, and the passion for wealth was considered natural. In his poems, Solon openly admits that he wants to be rich, stipulating, however, that he is attracted only by honestly acquired things: “I want to be rich, but I don’t want to own this wealth dishonestly: the hour for retribution will come later.” He emphasizes that honor and a good name are dearer to him than wealth: “Many low people are rich, but a good one gets poorer. We will not exchange valor for a bag of money.

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