суббота, 12 февраля 2022 г.

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The Urartians founded many cities; some of them, such as Yerevan, still exist today. Individual cities had a regular rectangular layout; in front of their defensive walls, even the famous military art of the Assyrians turned out to be powerless. In 735 BC Assyrian king Tiglath-palasar III was unable to take the fortress in Tushpa. In 714 BC his successor Sargon II, who devastated the entire territory of Urartu, did not even approach Tushpa, remembering the failure of his predecessor. The temples of the Urartians were quite different from their contemporary structures. The style of local architecture was a bit like the later Greek; inventions of Urartian engineers and builders subsequently spread widely in Asia Minor.

All these talents were needed by the Urartians when their kings, Argishti I and his son Sarduri II (764-735 BC), began to develop the vast lands located between the Arak and Kura rivers. The fact is that the vital centers of Urartu were located too close to the Assyrian possessions, and enemy troops could reach them in just a few transitions. Therefore, for Urartu, the transfer of state forges and granaries to the northern regions became a matter of life and death. In just a few decades, these lands were covered with orchards and vineyards; bustling cities sprang up in the mountain valleys.


It is difficult to find mistakes in the actions of the rulers of Urartu. Throughout almost the entire USh c. BC. they slowly and stubbornly "squeezed out" their formidable opponent, accumulating strength and avoiding a decisive battle. But the wounded lion jumped, and his jump turned out to be disastrous for the hunter. At the cost of extreme effort, the Assyrians still managed to defeat their prudent enemies.

There were apparently several reasons for this catastrophe. In 745 BC. Tiglathpalasar S. ascended the Assyrian throne. A very energetic ruler, he suppressed internal unrest and carried out military reform. Assyria began to have a powerful army of hired, well-trained soldiers (see Art. "Assyria"). And the very first clashes between the Urartians and the Assyrian troops showed that the enemy of the Urartians was invincible. It was necessary to save what could still be saved. However, pride and unwillingness to abandon far-reaching plans turned out to be stronger than sober political calculation. The next king of Urartu, Rusa I (735-713 BC), decided to win by cunning where it was no longer possible to win by force. Distracting the Assyrian troops to the area of ​​Lake Urmia, Rusa I tried to go behind their lines. But Sargon II was an experienced warrior and did not fall into the trap. The defeat of the Urartians was complete. Rusa fled to Tushpa and committed suicide.

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