среда, 23 февраля 2022 г.

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The familiar Hellenic world by the 4th century BC started to crumble. And then, quite unexpectedly, Heraclid appeared - a descendant of Hercules (namely, Philip II counted his family from him), who could take on the role of a unifier or a common enemy, which would also rally the policies. After the victory over Phokis, Philip's popularity in the cities increased.

In all policies there was a struggle between supporters and opponents of the Macedonian king.

The best orators of Athens, Isocrates and Aeschines, supported Philip, believing that he was that great personality who would revive ancient Hellas if he united it under his rule. For the sake of the greatness of Greece, they were ready to say goodbye to the independence of their city. Isocrates argued that Philip's hegemony would be a blessing because he himself was a Greek and a descendant of Hercules. Philip II generously gave gold to his supporters, rightly believing that "there is no such high city wall that a donkey loaded with gold could not step over."
Philip's opponent, the leader of the anti-Macedonian party, the Athenian orator Demosthenes called on the Greeks to fight against the aggressive policy of the Macedonian king. He called Philip a treacherous barbarian, seeking to take over Greece. However, it was not for the Greeks, who had long forgotten what honor is, to reproach Philip for treachery, dishonesty, deceit, dishonesty and lust for power. How many loyal allies and opponents who believed false promises were left on their historical path by Athens, striving for power...

Despite the successes of Philip's supporters, his opponents managed to gain the upper hand. Demosthenes was able to convince Athens, and with them other Greek cities, of the need to repulse the hypocritical and aggressive Macedonian. He achieved the creation of an anti-Macedonian coalition of Greek policies.

The cunning Philip decided to strike at the Thracian and Hellespont Bosporus straits in order to cut off Central Greece from its Black Sea possessions. He laid siege to Byzantium and the Iranian city of Perynthus. However, this time, having neutralized the supporters of Macedonia, Athens managed to help Byzantium - Perinth was helped by the indignant Iranian king Darius Sh. Philip retreated (340 BC) - It was a tangible defeat. Middle Greece could rejoice. Philip decided not to stir up this "hornet's nest" for the time being, leaving his supporters, gold and time to act. His patience was not in vain. Greece could not long live in peace. A new Holy War has begun. This time, the inhabitants of the city of Amfissa, supported by Athens, encroached on the lands of the Delphic temple. Amphiktyonia, at the suggestion of Aeschines, a Macedonian supporter, remembering the zealous defender of Delphi, turned to Philip II with a request to intercede for the offended deity. Philip, faster than the wind, rushed to Central Greece, effortlessly punished Amfissa and, unexpectedly for everyone, and even for his Thessalian friends, took possession of the city of Elatea at Cefiss, which was the key to Boeotia and Attica.

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