вторник, 22 февраля 2022 г.

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In addition to ethics and philosophy, Aristotle taught Alexander and the science of the state. But the ideal of a great teacher was far away. Macedonia was full of noble families who sought to control the king. Greece, after the death of Philip II, decided to win back its freedom.

Alexander began his reign by destroying all possible contenders for the throne, and then reminded Hellas of Macedonian rule. The initial demonstration of power at the borders made the Greeks change their minds, and they recognized Alexander for all the rights of the murdered Philip II: he was elected archon, strategist-autocrat of Hellas and recognized as hegemon. Alexander calmly departed north to fight the barbarians.

However, Thebes was the first to break down, instigated by Athens, who had a low opinion of the abilities of the young king. It is one thing to defeat some barbarian tribes, another thing is to take one of the most powerful cities in Greece. Is it possible for a boy? It turned out that yes. Alexander's army quickly marched (in 13 days) from Thrace to Thebes. And, despite the courageous resistance of the best Theban army in Greece, the city was taken. Alexander, in the words of the ancient Greek historian Diodorus, "brutalized soul." All the inhabitants of the city, with the exception of priests and supporters of the Macedonians, were sold into slavery (30 thousand people), the male population was exterminated, and the city itself was wiped off the face of the earth. Apparently, as a tribute to Greek literature, the king left only the house of the poet Pindar in the open field. Only then did the Greeks appreciate the velvet policy of Philip II, when Alexander showed them the "iron fist".
Now that the Greeks, who had lost all hope, were pacified, Alexander finally decided to start a war with the Achaemenid power. This war was to be perceived by the Greeks as revenge for the desecration of the Hellenic shrines in the previous Greco-Persian wars. The desire of Alexander, who "dreamed of inheriting power, fraught not with luxury, pleasure and wealth, but with battles, wars and the struggle for glory" (Plutarch), seems to have been close to being realized. In order to cut off his way back, Alexander gave away most of his lands in Macedonia and turned his hopeful eyes on Iran, hungry for glory. In 334 BC Alexander threw his spear at the Asian coast, thus declaring his rights to this territory, and landed on the coast of Asia Minor with an army of 50,000.

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