среда, 23 февраля 2022 г.

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In TV c. BC. Greece was weakened by the Peloponnesian War and the beginning of the expansion of the policy. No Greek state could claim to be a unifier or peacemaker. The Greeks made claims to each other with or without reason, each time creating new alliances and new enemies. In 355 BC the Holy War broke out, which lasted until 346 BC. The inhabitants of the city of Phocis unexpectedly seized the lands belonging to the temple of Apollo. Thebes tried to curb the blasphemers. However, the Phocians responded by capturing the temple of Apollo at Delphi and using the money they stole, they hired an army of 20,000. Since in Macedonia and Hellas they believed in the same gods, Philip II, at the request of Thebes, immediately acted as an ardent defender of the offended Apollo. Despite a series of failures, Philip defeated the troops of the Phocians in Thessaly (352 BC) and liberated Delphi. 3 thousand captives were drowned in the sea to atone for sacrilege, and the body of their deceased commander Onomarch was crucified on the cross. Now it was time to punish the criminal city of Phocis. However, Athens, quickly realizing that the Macedonians just want to get into Central Greece, defended the only way - the Thermopylae passage.
Philip II, deciding not to tempt fate, turned north. For a long time he looked with interest at the rich Olynthus, who now found himself surrounded on all sides by Macedonian lands, and said: “Either the Olynthians must leave their city, or I must leave Macedonia.” Having swiftly captured the small cities of the Chalkid Union, the Macedonians laid siege to Olynthos. The siege lasted a year. Thanks to the diplomacy of Philip, the help from Athens, for which the Chalkidians begged, was late, the city was taken and destroyed in 348 BC.

Now the Athenians, who valued the remnants of their influence in Thrace, agreed to make peace with Macedonia (Philocratic peace - 346 BC) and withdrew the army from Thermopylae. All cunning plans to save Phokis were shattered by the deceit, treachery and gold of the Macedonian. Phokis fell, and their votes in Amphiktion (the union of Greek policies - the guardians of the temple of Apollo in Delphi) went to Philip, who now, as a Hellene, could intervene in Greek affairs on legal grounds. In addition, part of the Greek fortifications on the border of Central Greece and Thermopylae passed to the Macedonian. From now on, the passage to Central Greece was always open to its new owner.

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