среда, 10 ноября 2021 г.

Festivals, photo reportages (english, russian)

Late feudal society was characterized by the absolute power of the monarch. Bourgeois society raised, based on the very popular in the XVII-XVIII centuries. ancient tradition and heritage of the "enlighteners" (Rousseau, Voltaire, Locke, etc.), the idea of ​​democracy, the republic. In the initial period of the New Age, during the years of the first bourgeois revolutions, the struggle between the monarchs and the class of entrepreneurs rushing to power was very fierce. This was expressed, in particular, in hitherto unseen events - the public executions of kings Charles I Stuart (1649) and Louis XVI Bourbon (1793). However, the British and French returned to the monarchy - the first forever (the "Glorious Revolution" of 1688 finally established constitutional rule, when the king "reigns, but does not rule"), the second temporarily. It turned out that the monarchical government gets along well with the bourgeoisie and even actively defends its interests. An excellent example is the empire of Napoleon I, who expanded the influence of the French bourgeoisie with bayonets and pressed out at the beginning of the 19th century. positions of its British competitors.
In the same period of the New Age, the monarchs of the Scandinavian countries, Germany, and Italy strengthened their positions precisely with the support of the national bourgeoisie. It became clear to contemporaries that the political system of an industrial society can be based on both a monarchical and a republican system, provided that the government is responsible to the elected people. Both constitutional monarchies (England, Japan), and parliamentary republics (now Germany and Italy), and presidential republics (USA, France) are quite acceptable, because they are based on the right of citizens to elect their representatives and on the system of separation of powers in the legislative (parliament), executive (government) and judicial, independent of each other. Such forms of the political structure of society were developed in modern times.
The aristocracy, the former feudal nobility, was still trying to restore its influence in the first period of the New Age and became the ancestor of the conservative direction. Conservatives opposed drastic changes in relations in society, in political systems, in favor of preserving the traditions of political and cultural life. Their foreign policy was aimed at countering the desire of the peoples of the colonies to achieve independence. From the second half of the XIX century. part of the commercial and industrial class also began to lean towards conservatism (Benjamin Disraeli), emphasizing the need for strong power.

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