понедельник, 25 апреля 2022 г.

Испания соцсети 3

“Perhaps future generations will not believe that such a man of ordinary flesh and blood walked this earth,” Albert Einstein said of Mahatma Gandhi. History really knows a lot of people who were able to change the world. But only a few of them carried a spirit so alien to the reigning in this world that they seemed to be aliens from the world of another.

The first half of the 20th century... Instead of the kingdom of reason, freedom and justice, which the people of the 19th century were waiting for, an era of unprecedented violence and powerlessness has come.

Cynical or insane leaders give orders - and millions of people willingly go to kill each other in world wars. Several submachine gunners lead a column of thousands of adults to their deaths - and no one tries to resist. Enthusiastic crowds greet the executioners. Thoughtless submission, betrayal, cruelty become the highest virtues.

Violence has become ubiquitous and everyday, has become the norm, crushed in a person faith in their own significance, in the ability to change anything. People no longer have anything to oppose arbitrariness, and their impotence affirms the growing power of violence.

How to break the vicious circle of violence and impotence? Is it now possible to believe in a person and what can become its basis?

The answer to these questions was the whole life of Mahatma Gandhi.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on October 2, 1869 in one of the small principalities of Western India. The ancient family of Gandhi belonged to the Baniya merchant caste, however, both grandfather and father of Gandhi were chief ministers of small principalities. Religious rites were strictly observed in the Gandhi family - the mother was deeply religious. Gandhi's father was revered for justice and incorruptibility and, despite his high position, remained a poor man. He was an opponent of religious and communal strife, respected people regardless of their religious and caste affiliation, which was not often found in India at that time.

Mohandas was the youngest child in the family and recalled his childhood as follows: “I was very shy and avoided the company of children. My only friends were books and lessons... I literally ran home (from school) because I couldn't stand talking to anyone... Besides, I was a coward. I was afraid of thieves, ghosts and snakes... Darkness terrified me... As far as I remember, I myself did not have a very good opinion of my abilities. I used to be surprised when I received awards or scholarships. At the same time, I was extremely proud, the slightest remark brought tears to my eyes.
The timid, shy boy was distinguished by unchildlike firmness and independence of thought. He was 11 years old when he realized that he could not agree with one of the Indian traditions. For a long time in India there was a class of "untouchables" - people doing the dirtiest work. They were forbidden to visit Hindu temples, drink water from the same source with caste Hindus. They had to wear a bell around their neck to warn of their presence. Untouchability was passed from parents to children, and it was impossible to leave this estate.

Like all Indian children, Mohandas' parents forbade him to communicate with the "untouchables". “Naturally, I obeyed, but objected with a smile that untouchability was not sanctified by religion and could not be sanctified. I was a very obedient child, but, as far as respect for my parents allowed me, I entered into an argument with them about this, ”Gandhi recalled. After many years, it was he who managed to convince the Indians to abandon this cruel prejudice.

One of the strongest childhood shocks was an early marriage according to the Indian tradition - at the age of 13, Mohandas was married to a girl of the same age as Kasturbai. Fortunately, the children fell in love with each other, and Kasturbay was a friend and assistant to her husband until the end of her life.

In 1888, Gandhi, on the advice of family friends and relatives, decided to go to England to get a serious education and the profession of a lawyer. This decision provoked a sharp protest from the elders of his caste. Religion forbade leaving India, in addition, the elders were sure that it was impossible to live in Europe without violating the precepts of faith. Gandhi did not comply with their demands. For this, he was excommunicated from the caste and could no longer count on her help and support.

In England, he felt very lonely, everything around him was alien. At the same time, communication with European culture opened up new horizons for him. He was introduced to Buddhism, was shocked by the New Testament, and dreamed of uniting Hinduism with the teachings of Buddha and Christ.
In 1891, having received the highest degree in law, Gandhi returned to India. However, the hopes of relatives for his high position and solid income did not materialize. Gandhi's honesty and responsibility did not help his career.

Soon the young lawyer accepts an offer from an Indian trading firm to handle its business in South Africa. He is attracted by the opportunity to see a new country and gain experience.

Going to South Africa in 1893, Gandhi did not suspect that he was going to meet his true vocation and his destiny.

From the first days of his stay in South Africa, he had to face outright racism. He was forcibly dragged out of the first-class carriage, not allowed to get into the stagecoach, where the whites rode; the police pushed him onto the pavement from sidewalks that were reserved for whites only. Gandhi learned that in this country, humiliation and oppression is the fate of all Indians (and all "colored"), regardless of their education and status.

Return to India immediately? To put up with being here like the rest of the Indians?

“The hardships to which I was subjected were a manifestation of a serious disease - racial prejudice. I must try to eradicate this disease as far as possible, and endure all the coming hardships for this, ”decides Gandhi.

Gandhi begins by developing personal principles for dealing with manifestations of racism. He decides every time to show arbitrariness polite, but adamant resistance and never demand retribution for insults relating to him personally.

Gradually, Gandhi realizes how hopeless the situation of the Indians in South Africa is. Returning to their homeland was impossible: in India, millions of the same landless peasants died of hunger every year. Here they were doomed to a beggarly life on dirty reservations and to slave labor; they were daily humiliated, could be jailed for refusing to work, and beaten to death with impunity. Hopelessness gave rise to humility and a feeling of complete impotence.

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