пятница, 22 апреля 2022 г.

Испания соцсети 1

The Directory (as the French government had been called since 1797) willingly agreed to support the general's plan. Who needs a popular commander with a devoted army in the capital? This time they gave him everything: weapons, fleet, uniforms, supplies - just to get out of sight. “Military happiness is changeable, and what if he perishes,” the directors thought hopefully.

In 1798 Napoleon landed in Egypt. A series of successful battles at Aboukir, at the pyramids, ended with the British and their supporters being defeated. But the French ships had to meet with the English fleet under the command of Admiral Nelson, and the naval battle in the Gulf of Abu-Kir ended in disaster for the French. Communication with France was blocked. The long siege of the fortress of Saint-Jean-d'Acre convinced Napoleon of the futility of continuing this campaign. But there was no way to take the army out, and disturbing rumors came from France: General Suvorov destroyed all the fruits of Bonaparte's victories in Italy; The directory is not able to control the situation, the country is again under the threat of foreign invasion.

Even in Italy, Napoleon decided that he was subject to the Directory only temporarily and that the day would come when he himself would rule the country. It looks like that day is drawing near. Bonaparte secretly left Egypt, leaving the army in full combat readiness against General Kléber. At great risk, as the English fleet might appear at any moment, he reached France. The triumph was complete. France enthusiastically welcomed the hero of Italy and Egypt. The members of the Directory had no choice but to accept him with open arms. And Bonaparte began to act.

On 18-19 Brumaire (November 9-10) he carried out a coup d'état. Several times everything hung in the balance. But Napoleon won. He was proclaimed first consul, first for 10 years, and in 1802 for life.

To consolidate the victory, the first consul decided to restore his conquests in Italy, once again taking it away from Austria. On June 14, 1800, the Battle of Marengo took place, ending in a brilliant victory. Italy again belonged to France. In 1802, peace was concluded with England. The people rejoiced. One could enjoy a peaceful life after so many successful victories.
However, the title of consul, even for life, no longer suited Bonaparte. He wanted more. And in May 1804, the consul for life was proclaimed emperor of the French Republic, and since 1808 - of the French Empire, under the name of Napoleon I. Having laid the crown on himself on December 2, 1804, he decided to conquer the world. This required a war. The occasion was not long in coming. Napoleon caused outrage throughout monarchist Europe by shooting a member of the former French royal family, the Duke of Enghien. In addition, he quarreled with Alexander I, the Russian emperor. Again, more than half of Europe took up arms against France. But now there was a man at the head of France who wanted war. “The war was so much his element that when he prepared it or led it, he always gave the impression of a person living a full life” (E.V. Tarle).

France was opposed by the armies of the largest states of that time - Austria and Russia, which were supported by less powerful countries: the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Savoy and others. England blockaded France by sea. The first decisive battle between the Allies and Napoleon's army took place on December 2, 1805 at Austerlitz. Europe has never seen such a rout! The crushing defeat of the Russian and Austrian armies led to the fact that Austria was forced to conclude a separate (that is, separately from the allies) peace with France. In 1806, near Jena and Auerstedt, Napoleon defeated the vaunted Prussian army in a week, completely withdrawing Prussia from the war. Since 1806, all countries friendly to France had to join the Continental blockade, which the emperor directed against England, because. couldn't get it any other way. Napoleon declared the Kingdom of Naples non-existent, expelled the king from it, bringing in French troops, and placed his brother Joseph on the empty throne. The rest of the brothers were also not bypassed in the distribution of crowns. “Let them not think that I am going to beg the throne for one of my own: I have enough thrones to distribute them to my family” (Napoleon - Murat). Napoleon's marshals became sovereign dukes. “The maker and maker of kings,” as Prince de Ligne called Napoleon, really handed out titles right and left, which later allowed the Russians to treat the ducal and royal dignity of his generals and marshals without much respect.

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