четверг, 23 декабря 2021 г.


Like Caesar, who aspired to become the first in Rome, two more of his contemporaries actively pursued the same goal: Gnaeus Pompeii Magnus and Marcus Licinius Kras. Despite their political influence, none of them could yet become the sole master of Rome. Therefore, at the initiative of Caesar, an agreement was concluded between the three politicians - not to allow actions that are objectionable to each of them. This union of Caesar, Crassus and Pompey was subsequently called the first triumvirate (in Latin - "the union of three husbands").

Caesar-consul, having such powerful political support, began to pursue a policy that was beneficial to the triumvirate, and first of all to Pompey. However, the Senate tried to oppose Caesar's actions. There were two consuls in Rome, and the second consul, Mark Calpurnius Bibulus, opposing Caesar, supported the senate. It came down to armed clashes. However, Caesar, not wanting to yield, turned, contrary to tradition, for the support of his laws to the popular assembly, bypassing the Senate. Bibulus, frightened and offended, locked himself in his house and did not show up again until the end of the consulate, leaving Caesar to do whatever he pleases. It turned out that in Rome in 59 BC. there was actually one consul - Caesar. In Rome, years were counted by consuls, so 59 BC. the Romans jokingly called it not "the consulate of Caesar and Bibulus", but "the consulate of Julius and Caesar."

After the consulship, Caesar, as befits a proconsul, received a province to govern. But thanks to the influence of the triumvirate - not for one year, as was required by law, but for five years with the right to declare and wage war without the consent of the senate. Caesar had four legions under his command. Gaul became his province. At first, Caesar received only Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum, and then the rest of Gaul, which still had to be conquered.

With diplomacy and military art, Caesar gradually begins to conquer the Gallic tribes. By 56 B.C. the territories between the Alps, the Rhine and the Pyrenees, through the efforts of Caesar, were completely annexed to Rome. This victory was given to Caesar quite easily. “As far as the Gauls are boldly and resolutely ready to start any wars, they are just as weak-willed and unstable in enduring failures and defeats,” Caesar wrote in Notes on the Gallic War.

Caesar was the first Roman to cross the Rhine, driving back the invading Germanic tribes. He made (again the first) two trips to Britain, subordinating to Rome part of the Celtic tribes living there and imposing tribute on them. The successful commander literally filled up Rome with gold and with his help continued to actively influence political life.

However, busy with the Gallic campaigns, Caesar did not forget to monitor the strength of the triumvirate. By 56 B.C. Caesar's partners - Pompeii and Krass - were on the verge of a break. Caesar met with them in the city of Luca, where three politicians confirmed the previous agreements and distributed the provinces: Spain and Africa went to Pompey, Syria to Crassus. Caesar was given another five years to extend his powers in Gaul.

In this province, things did not go as smoothly as we would like. Thanksgiving prayers and festivities that were held in honor of Caesar's victories could not humble the spirit of the Gauls and their desire for liberation from the heavy tutelage of Rome.

It is in Gaul that Caesar begins to pursue a policy of dementia (in Latin - "mercy"), on the principles of which he will base his policy in the future. He forgave those who repented and tried not to shed blood in vain, preferring to have those who owed him their lives, and not dead Gauls.

However, nothing could stop the coming storm. In 52 BC A general Gallic uprising broke out, led by the young leader Vircingetorix. Caesar was in a very difficult position. He had only 60 thousand people (10 legions), and the rebels had 250-300 thousand. The Gauls, having suffered a number of defeats in open battle, switched to partisan operations. Everything that Caesar had conquered was lost as a result of this uprising. But in 51 BC. under the city of Alesia, the Romans in three battles with great difficulty manage to defeat the rebels. Vircingetorix was captured, many of the chieftains were killed, the Gaulish militia fled, and the uprising waned. In 52-51 years. BC. Caesar had to reconquer Gaul.

No sooner had the Gallic uprising subsided than Caesar was again in trouble, this time in Rome. In 53 BC Krase died in a campaign against the Parthians. Pompey, not seeing after this the point in respecting previous agreements with Caesar, began to strengthen his position and protect only his own interests.

The Roman Republic was on the verge of collapse. Either Pompeii (legitimately - he had already been appointed sole consul by the Senate), or Caesar (illegally) could easily take advantage of her weakness. All attempts by Caesar to end the matter amicably and find a mutually acceptable solution were unequivocally rejected by the Senate and Pompey. Trampling Roman laws, they raised troops.

Caesar once again faced a choice: either obey the demands of the Senate and forever say goodbye to his ambitious plans, or, violating the laws, resist the autocracy of Pompey and, possibly, get the glory of the enemy of the republic.

The future dictator himself understood all this very well, standing on January 10, 49 BC. with one legion in front of the small river Rubicon, which separated it from the original possessions of Rome. According to the Roman historian Appian, Caesar turned to his friends: "If I do not cross this river, my friends, then this will be the beginning of disasters for me, and if I do, it will be the beginning of disasters for all people." Having said this, he swiftly, as if by inspiration from above, crossed the Rubicon, adding: "Let the die be cast" (in Latin: "Alea jacta est").

Caesar marched on Rome. The Senate and Pompey were shocked by this turn of events and the speed of Caesar's actions. All preparations for resistance were abandoned. Italy was thrown at the mercy of the "violator of the laws", and the invincible Pompeii the Great with the Senate hastily left the country. Caesar was advancing rapidly towards Rome, taking one city after another and shedding almost no blood. In addition to the fact that reinforcements approached him from Gaul, all the Roman garrisons, originally subordinate to Pompey, poured into Caesar's army.

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