пятница, 3 декабря 2021 г.

GAB 2021

This was the name in Scandinavia for warriors who made campaigns in other countries. The Viking is a pirate and a warrior, a seeker of prey and glory that military exploits could bring him. They were called "northern people" in Europe, Normans in France, Danes in England, Askemanns in Germany, Varangians in Byzantium and Varangians in Russia. The homeland of the Vikings was the Scandinavian Peninsula in northern Europe. The land there was infertile, crop failures often occurred. The Scandinavians even had a cruel custom: in the famine years, babies, especially girls, were taken to the forest and left there to die.

Forests and mountains covering the territory of Scandinavia hindered the development of trade. Therefore, the Scandinavians (which included the Danes, Swedes and Norwegians) quickly mastered the sea routes along their indented bays (fjords) shores. They did not have a state, they lived in tribes. Each tribe had a military leader - jarl, or king, who had a permanent squad (by the way, the Russian word "prince" came precisely from the Scandinavian "king" - leader). The combatants took an oath of allegiance to the leader, violating which, they would cover themselves with indelible shame. To return from the battle in which the leader fell was a sign of cowardice, the most shameful act.

Gradually the population increased. But due to the poverty of nature, not everyone had enough land to feed themselves and their families. Young peasants were forced to leave their homes and become warriors. The sons of noble families were no exception, who had no choice but to seek wealth in a foreign land. The spirit of wandering, unprecedented treasures, stories about which were brought by fellow tribesmen who had been on trading expeditions, excited the imagination of young people. They gathered in squads, led by young yar-lams, in the hope of gaining fame and fortune. So by the 8th century. many "sea kings" appeared who had a squad, but no land. They became the first Vikings.

In 793, the Vikings attacked the English island of Lindisfarne, plundered and ravaged the monastery. Thus began the Viking Age, the invasion of the "northern people" to Europe, which was destined to last three centuries. All over Europe the clergy prayed: "God, deliver us from the fury of the Normans." It cannot be said that Europe for the first time faced robber attacks. But the numerous expeditions of the Vikings, their capture of new lands could only be compared with the invasion of the barbarians on the Roman Empire, the horrors of which had just begun to be forgotten.



The Viking raids were at first unorganized, with few attackers. But even this was enough for the fragmented Europe to groan under the onslaught of their troops. In the ninth century the Vikings captured Ireland, England, ravaged and burned Nantes, Hamburg, Pisa, Chartres, and in 845 one of the most famous jarls - Ragnar Lodbrog - entered Paris. “Not a single city, not a single monastery remained untouched. Everyone took to flight. .. ”, - all the chronicles of that time are filled with similar complaints.

First, in England, and then throughout Europe, a feverish collection of “Danish money” begins to either pay off the Viking attack, or redeem the captured cities and lands from them. But the Normans are no longer satisfied with the random loot obtained from attacks on the coastal cities, which were pretty battered by them. They begin to fortify themselves on the coast, so that, making raids inland, they capture more and more new territories. Thus, in Northern England, Denlo was formed - an area of ​​​​Danish law, which was controlled by the Vikings and dominated by Scandinavian customs.

By the X century. Danish kings launched a massive offensive against Europe. The era of unorganized campaigns is over. The powerful united squads of the Scandinavians attacked the weak European states, taking one territory after another. No wonder the Danes were considered one of the most formidable invaders. Other Vikings were not far behind. The distant northern lands of Russia and the imperial Constantinople experienced the heavy hand of sea robbers.

In 911, the Viking jarl Rolf (Rollon) forced the king of France, Charles the Simple, to give him a fief (hereditary possession for military service) of the region of Northern France he had conquered, which later became known as Normandy. In Ireland, the Vikings founded the city of Dublin and conquered the entire east coast. The Vikings attacked Arab Spain and Italy. The descendants of the Vikings - the Normans - conquered Naples and the island of Sicily and formed the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies there. England had a particularly hard time, attacks on which continued for all three centuries of Norman campaigns. She never completely managed to get rid of the dominion of the invaders: in 1066, the descendant of Rollon, the Frenchized Norman William the Conqueror, conquered England, proclaiming himself its king.

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